Fortune Bay NL

Devon Griffin wrote the following about Fortune Bay and the family of Elizabeth Saunders. He sent it as a comment on Newfoundland Mi’kmaq Family History. But with so much information that people are seeking, I asked if I could post it on its own. He kindly agreed and provided photos.

google map of Fortune bay
Fortune Bay: English Harbour East right of centre, Terrenceville far right. Click to enlarge

Martha Murphy Hynes

Martha Murphy’s parents were Walter Murphy & Bridget Ryan of Oderin and Little Harbour West, Placentia Bay. She had several siblings. (Martha married Joseph Hynes, son of Elizabeth Saunders and Thomas Hynes. After Martha’s death, Joseph married Mary Smith, daughter of John Smith and Elizabeth Vaters of Davis Island.)

Martha died on Feb 28 1884 in English Harbour East, and she’s buried in St. Bernard’s (The only RC cemetery on that side of Fortune Bay at the time) and her headstone still exists there.

Mary Bridget (Murphy) Barron, d/o John Murphy
Mary Bridget (Murphy) Barron, d/o John Murphy

I’m currently working on the Murphy family as it seems there was some Mi’kmaq blood in the family, but we are unsure how. They had some affiliation with native people in the Swift Current area in the early- to mid-1800s. If you look at Martha’s brother John Murphy’s daughters, they are very Mi’kmaq in appearance.

Smiths and Hacketts

Anastasia (Murphy) Smith, d/o John Murphy, with grandchild
Anastasia (Murphy) Smith, d/o John Murphy, with grandchild

Elizabeth (also known as Betsy) Smith Hackett’s parents were William Smith & Elizabeth Whittle. She married William Hackett. He died on May 17 1884 in English Harbour East according to Gertrude Crosbie’s transcription of NL Newspapers. Betsy’s sister Martha Smith married William Hackett’s brother, Thomas Hackett.

There also is some speculation about an early connection between the Hacketts and the Saunders. A Joseph Hackett was in Fortune Bay in 1818 according to the Keith Matthews collection at the Maritime History Archive. Dorothy, I’m not sure if you have seen it before but there was a Joseph Hackett in Labrador in the 1820s recorded as a half-Indian. Interesting the name shows up in both places.

Elizabeth Saunders Family

Also, more information on the Saunders. Elizabeth (Saunders) Hynes was indeed of Mi’kmaq origin. Her parents were John and Elizabeth Saunders, and were noted in court records for 1810/1811 as having saved a young servant girl Margaret Doyle from her master Michael Gorman. He was abusing her at Terrenceville (then known as Fortune Bay Bottom). They took her into their home and protected her from him.

Elizabeth Saunders and Thomas Hynes family D Stewart
Click to enlarge. Circled names are people in photos here.

DNA connection with Elizabeth Joe

We recently conducted a mtDNA test, which is your direct maternal line (your mother’s mother’s mother etc.), on John Saunders’ wife Elizabeth. We do not have a maiden name for her yet. The test came back and she shares a direct maternal line with Elizabeth (Joe) Blanchard of the Bay of Islands [wife of William Blanchard].

As many know, Elizabeth Joe was Mi’kmaq and has been speculated to be Thomas Joe’s daughter or some relation to him. It’s also believed Mary Park Brooks was Elizabeth (Joe) Blanchard’s sister and was Mi’kmaq. We’re working on getting an mtDNA test for a descendant of hers to prove that.

The mtDNA test showed that Elizabeth Saunders and Elizabeth (Joe) Blanchard share a direct maternal line with a genetic distance of 0. That means it’s very recent (within the last 200-250 years), so the most likely scenarios are that they were sisters, aunt and niece or first cousins on the maternal side.

It’s pretty interesting to be able to connect two women who were known to be Mi’kmaq. If Mary Park Brooks mtDNA test comes back as sharing a direct maternal line also, it provides a little proof to their connection as I believe in the 1838/1839 list of inhabitants it says she was from Burin originally and is also where Elizabeth Saunders frequented.

John and Elizabeth Saunders, Terrenceville

Albert Saunders s/o George Saunders and Ann Baker
Albert Saunders s/o George Saunders and Ann Baker (click to enlarge)

John & Elizabeth Saunders had the following children: Elizabeth Saunders (m. Thomas Hynes), Richard (Dickie) Saunders (m. Joanna Clarke), Catherine Saunders (m. James Picco), Ann Saunders (m. Esau Rhymes), George Saunders (m. (1) Ann Unknown (2) Ann Baker), Jane Saunders (m. Timothy McCarthy), & Joseph Saunders (m. Mary Jane Myles). There could possibly be more, but that’s what has been confirmed over the years.

The area of Terrenceville in Fortune Bay was highly frequented by the Mi’kmaq up until the mid-1870s (the story of why they stopped travelling there is a whole few paragraphs of its own). The Saunders and their descendants ended up staying there and settling.

Lavhey family, Terrenceville

Another prominent Mi’kmaq woman who stayed in Terrenceville was Elizabeth, married to Lewis Lavhey. Apparently she was a Bernard originally. Their descendants, especially through their daughter Grace (m. Samuel Coombs), live on in the area.

Picco family and ships

The Piccos were also a very frequent Mi’kmaq family in the area and as you can see one of them (James Picco) married Catherine Saunders. They have been in the area of Fortune Bay for hundreds of years. Apparently the matriarch of that family died in 1844 (according to a family history story published in the 1960s) over a hundred years old and was a great great great grandmother. By that point, she lived in St. Joseph’s, Placentia Bay (then known as Gallow’s Harbour).

Mary Jane (Picco) Hanrahan, daughter-in-law and granddaughter
Mary Jane (Picco) Hanrahan, daughter-in-law and granddaughter

I have heard rumours and old family history that the Mi’kmaq Picco (often spelled Peaco or Pico) originally came from Nova Scotia. Dr. Leslie Harris, former president of MUN, stated in his book ‘Growing up with Verse’ that James Picco & Catherine Saunders’ son John Picco had Mi’kmaq blood, and that it was often talked about. The Piccos are a large family, but there haven’t been a lot of records concerning them. Seems James & Catherine lived in Fortune Bay at one point before moving to St. Joseph’s, and their son John was born there in 1841 according to his death record & Leslie Harris’ book.

James Hackett s/o Elizabeth Hynes and Michael Hackett
James Hackett, s/o Elizabeth Hynes and Michael Hackett, lost on the Donald Silver Jan. 1924

There are lots of ships registered for the Piccos from Fortune Bay. Behind English Harbour East (home of Elizabeth Saunders Hynes) there is also a place called Piccos Woods. I have recorded a Phillip Picco, Joseph Picco etc. trading with Newman and Co. in the 1790s out of Little Bay & Harbour Breton. As it’s known, natives typically moved around a lot for different reasons. The Piccos were no different, going between Bay d’Espoir, Fortune Bay and Placentia Bay.

John Family

Louis John and family also frequented the Long Harbour, Fortune Bay and Terrenceville areas, Peter John (his son) was born in Belleoram around the 1810s and one of the John men was a telegraph operator in Terrenceville.

Lots of more information if anyone is interested. I could go on forever. Still lots to figure out but we’ve definitely made some progress over the past few years putting things together. Hopefully someday we’ll map out all the Mi’kmaq of Fortune and Placentia Bays. DNA is a welcome assistant to our research and we encourage everyone to get a DNA test to find your cousins!

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Other Posts

Facebooktwittergoogle_pluspinterestmailby feather

125 thoughts on “Fortune Bay NL”

  1. Here is another comment on the 3 Frenchmen buried at THr, TB South presumably dated to Father Baudoin’s War (1696-7) or Queen Anne’s War (1702-13)… I do know that the burial plot consisting of 3 graves, each of which were known to have a large slab stones as headstone markers, are all shallow graves where the outlines can be faintly seen…so what we are seeing here are burial plots with dimensions of app. 3-3 1/2 ft. deep and app. 4-4 1/2 ft. long suggesting burials that were completed in haste in the case of Frenchmen, as during or following a military skirmish, or perhaps NA or Metis (French Indians)…shallow graves seem to point to NL Mc-Mont or EA (Eastern Algonquian) groups…given that Abenaki and Mc fought w/ French in these imperial campaigns as guides, scouts and militia, I would not rule out some of them belonging to FN groups… my gut feeling tells me that some of these so called Frenchmen were in fact NL-NS Mc and perhaps Abenaki (Penobscot)….but once again if and/or when any non-intrusive, non-invasive archeological surveying is conducted w/ eDNA testing of soil samples thereat, one should not expect any skeletal remains to have survived due to obvious destructive forces of water damage and ossuary contamination or decomposition resulting from high acidic soils, erosion, leaching and predator scavenging…

  2. Here’s a little tidbit on Duncan Barrington…had a chance to talk to a THr elder yesterday who worked with Duncan in the Swift Current area during the late 60s…he called him “a little old Indian who lived across the river”…he had a chance to talk to Poor Duncan on numerous occasions at Jack Beck’s over a few beer…Duncan told him about the time he was hunting bear near the Black River Mts…he told him that he covered himself in bear oil or grease and lay waiting for the bear to walk up to him….the bear thought that he was another bear and he walked right up to him, and then proceeded to describe how he shot the bear w/ a 30-30 rifle…I heard a few stories from older people in my community about Poor Duncan… particularly from my older family members who heard them from Old Johnnie Martin and my later grandfather…this elder that I talked to yesterday said that when he told Duncan he was from B..l…e, TB Duncan said “I’m related to some people from B..l…e” [Martins & Pecks]…. (T. Walsh, THr, TB South, pers. comm., 2018)…we always knew that we were related to the Barringtons and I now know how that comes about (my great-great-grandfather’s mother and John Barrington’s mother were sisters)….for some reason we were not allowed to ask the question about my great-great-grandfather’s mother…it was tabooed and forbidden…likewise the Barringtons were not allowed to talk about us openly until we had left the area ca. 1932-4…and even then we came back to hunt caribou in the North Harbour Barrens and Black River Pond-Mts area as late as the 1960s…we were talked about by them only out of respect in circumlocutionay or periphrastic terms….Duncan Barrington knew how we were related but that’s all the information that he would release or share openly when he was implored or questioned on the matter for more information…I know a lot about Duncan Barrington but I can’t share that information here…all for now namaste..

  3. PipersHoleMa
    I thank you for what you have undertaken, I want to continue digging because I feel a deep longing to know all I can, if I can help all descendants in my efforts so be it. As an artist, my intentions are to put as much as I can find out on film for those of the future so what we have discovered doesn’t die with us. I feel deprived by not being informed by my parents of my heritage and I have a lot to make up for. Good luck with your plans. Maybe our research paths will cross in the future.

    1. Regarding the call for collaborative research on Nukamkia’ji’jk (aka Brown’s Island, Johnnie Martin’s Land, or Pike Place (Pikkwa’kik)) the reclamation of said land and the construction of a future NL Mc interpretation center thereat, unfortunately I cannot be a part of that evolving ethno-political process. That research consultation would be a good project for NL Mc descendants and researchers like W. Dugan and Devon Griffin. However, if there were a future film-documentary on the Piper’s Hole Red Indian (Shawthru’tmthruat) residing at Red Indian Pond, and the incident that transpired at Huskie Outlook, Indian Scrape, Piper’s Hole River, and the fate of Beo female survivors like the one that ended in Trinity, TB North in 1817-22 and another in Conne River, I would like to share my knowledge on this matter. As a research consultant, I could also share what I know about the burn event at Stock Cove, TB South and how this meshes in with the French invasion of TB South in 1696-1713, and the desertion of so called Frenchmen (or rather naturalized or assimilated Anglo-Irish deserters and war captives incorporated into French society at Grand Plaisance) in Piper’s Hole, PB w/ resettlement to Tickle Harbour, TB South. As one should already know by now, there is a paranormal and/or mystical presence documented for Piper’s Hole, and the written record just gives the reader and/or researcher an official by the book, but albeit fragmented record of what really happened there. This is only the “tip of the iceberg” and a “watered down” or censored version of what really happened there, much of which has been withheld to assuage or placate critics and/or skeptics….the raw uncensored reality or truth has not been told yet…the movie documentary is the only way to accurately and vividly portray the true essence of what transpired-the written record does not serve it justice….one needs to experience the emotive mystic-religious driving force that activates or catalyzes the cyclic karmic (cause and effect) chain of events, to see the flesh put to human bones, the raw emotional drama of the human experience,…which takes in everything from shamanic prophecy, shamanic cursing, intragroup factionalism-fission or schism, deception-betrayal, adultery-wife stealing, desertion,…..with all of the emotional trauma that went with it….this would be a good project for Mamoa-he would make an excellent Pekitualuet or Nonosabasutt (sic.)…maybe someday our paths will indeed cross…God willing and blessing…Namaste.

  4. As a postscript: if and/or when archaeologists are interested in conducting a non-intrusive GPR survey of the old French burial ground at Tickle Harbour, TB where two of my paternal ancestors are reportedly buried going back to the French withdrawal of TB South and Upper PB ca. 1713 I would be more than willing to help them locate this burial plot…note that some of these French burial plots (as high as 5), may also contain the remains of some Abenaki guides-scouts who fought with the French during Father Baudoin’s War (1696-7) and Queen Anne’s War (1702-13), and who may have called themselves French or French Indian…I would also consent to extracting eDNA *(environmental DNA) from soil samples at this ancient burial plot to determine if any aDNA can be amplified or sequenced from the soil using PCR…one should logically expect no preservation of skeletal remains due to the high acidity of soil and parallel case studies throughout NL where WE & FN burial grounds fail to yield any appreciable human remains due to obvious decomposition-here is a link of such a archaeological field case study:

    “In 2011, the author visited a reported unmarked Mi’kmaq cemetery near Kippens that was given a Borden number. The cemetery reportedly contained just over 30 burials and was next to impossible to distinguish. This cemetery was known locally but it is not known who is buried there beyond that the people were Mi’kmaq. There was little to no physical trace of the burials. In several places, we walked over small undulations in the ground. According to a former Mi’kmaq Band chief in the area, the Mi’kmaq did not bury their dead very deep and the burials were actually the rises under our feet and not the typical dips of settled burials. Despite it being hard to distinguish the burials, we were certain we were in the right location because of information provided by several informants including that the cemetery was fenced in during the 1970s and 80s. We were able to find traces of the fence.”


    …. but all bets on helping them locate the Beo burial ground at Red Indian Pond are off the table…in such cases where ancient skeletal or mummified remains cannot be found in attested collective burial grounds or single mortuary plots archaeologists should exercise diligence in extracting soil samples for future eDNA analysis….any questions are queries on NL Mc genealogy can be forwarded to Newfoundland Grand Banks Message Board (under Pikeman)…all of the research on Upper PB and Piper’s Hole-Black River Mc genealogy is already completed and most if not all answers can be found there, or if not there then on FHSNL Newfoundland Ancestor….my energies are now dedicated to drafting business plans and proposals for investor group funding to initiate the ecotourism and sustainable aquaculture businesses referenced above…thanks

    1. The same argument for failing to find any evidence of skeletal and/or mummified remains in the soil can be applied to the Newfoundland Mi’kmaw burial ground located near Salmon Hole, Piper’s Hole River:

      “Somewhere across from Kilmory Resort, it is said, there is an Aboriginal burial ground that dates from the early part of the 1800’s. This was the area they occupied during their winters here.”


      The fact that the burial plots are collective and subterranean precludes Newfoundland Red Indian (Beothuk) as a candidate source for inhumation, but almost conclusively points to NL Mc (ca. 1540-1904)…but aDNA and eDNA testing has now reached a point in its evolution now where we don’t even need full human remains, as there are oftentimes residual traces of human DNA that can be left behind in the soil where leaching of biomolecules occurs, human fecal remains or coprolites are deposited and fossilized (eg., outhouses) and human blood plasma (lipid) residue on tools (eg., a hunter cuts a finger or hand on a lithic tool or weapon) or butchered animal remains…so looking at the case study of either John Barrington Sr. or John Martin Sr., both presumably NL Mc, if an archaeogeneticist (bioarchaeologist) really wanted to find the mtDNA, atDNA and xDNA of either occupant of Indian Cove, just measure out a radius of app. 30 feet from the known household perimeter of each household, use GPR equipment to detect the 6-ft cavity of each household’s outhouse, then extract a core soil sample at depths ranging from 3-6 feet from the surface…then send the samples to the lab for eDNA processing…its simple and logical…so nothing is ever forgotten only left behind….one can then find out either Micmacs true atDNA BGEO percentage, his mtDNA, and xDNA to cancel out any expected test result discrepancies in living NL Mc descendants…this is all I have to say… wish the interdisciplinary team the best of luck on their collaborative research…I hope I’m around long enough to read it and someday see a Mc Interpretation Centre standing on John Barrington & Mary Hawco’s old homestead at Rattling Brook, Indian Cove (Nukamkia’ji’jk), Piper’s Hole River….

  5. Hi Dorothy
    This is for Piper Hole researcher, my family originate in that area and I have spoke with him through Devon. I would be interested in his research and giving any help I can. I have been working to tie all my ancestry links together and at every turn a Mi’kmaq link pops up. I am very interested in retracing my roots and giving back to our ancestors by giving them voice. I have had my DNA done and it is uploaded to GEDMATCH. You can pass my info along to Piper Hole and I wish him great success

    1. Hi Joan (Woodill) Pike, my research interests are now outside of Piper’s Hole NL Mc Ethnohistory proper…I hope you find the answers you are looking for but I am 99.99% confident that my family DNA-whether YDNA STR-SNP, mtDNA, atDNA or xDNA-will ever show a link between your extended Mc Moulton-Martin-Hollett extended kin line and my Anglo-Irish-French Peck-Martin one, both presumably originating from Piper’s Hole, PB….the same argument goes for my patriline and the NL Mc in general (zero or nil relationship), although I know that my patriline is related to the Barrington Mc-Mont (or even Beothuk) patriline going back 6-7 Gens and that relationship can only be verified through ancient DNA and whole genome sequencing….so the fight is over 1.0-1.5% of the whole genome and a handful of rare and unknown SNP mutation markers….this is to be totally expected given what we now know of the unknown Indian woman (of Mont or even Beo ancestry) from Trinity (1817-22), so her WGS profile would not match any NL Mc, and by logical extension neither will it match in her direct distant descendants 6-7 Gens later….my work in that specialized area of research study focus is now complete as I have paid my dues and debts…I don’t owe anything to this cause anymore, namely NL Mc presence in Piper’s Hole, PB-so no more research, no apologies, or no defence for legitimizing my actions or research rationale, for the research evidence speaks for itself…and contrary to what some critics or skeptics have tabled against me as unfounded accusations (“you have an axe to grind against the Micmac”…whaaaa really, wow!)….my motivation or intention was never self-aggrandizing, self-promoting or self-profiteering, nor predicated on vindictive, vengeful or retaliatory self-interests in promoting a hidden agenda against the NL Mc….I initiated this process 20 years ago to answer the research questions on the identity of this group and the role the extended Peck-Martin patriline played in its evolutionary history, and to raise public awareness and interest only to appeal to family and community sentiment so that someone would step forward and defend the protection of Indian Cove…when I started looking into it then there were a lot of unanswered questions, gaps in the research data set and a stagnant public inertia of disinterest, apathy or indifference, characterized by “cold shoulders”, “dumb treatments”, “muzzled silence”, and “empty stares”….so the way that I saw it it then was that it was a dirty job but someone had to do it…did I derive any self-fulfillment or gratification from conducting this research-nope not once, it was done only out of duty, honour and obligation…and if I had my time looking back I would not have had anything to do with it…so only regrets….it was all volunteer, not-for-profit hard work that was done only in the name of altruism, philanthropy, and humanitarianism to defend the land and by that symbolic gesture how that land is defined and valued through ancient human interaction-the land are the people and the people are the land…they are one and inseparable eschatological and epistemic constructs, or from a NA/Siberian shamanic or mystico-spiritual perspective the land defines the people and without a landbase there are no people… so Indian Cove, now a resettled ancient NL Mc village, like any ancient FN living place or community, has an energy or power synchronistically synergized with the ancient DNA in the soil as absorbed by the living trees there and the residual echo of the voices of its long forgotten inhabitants (so “the distinction between past, present and future is a stubbornly persistent illusion” -A. Einstein)…the research paradigm all along was about defending the land for that is the message, and so, as an invocational address to all other readers, please focus on the message and not on the messenger…this fight now is between Conne River, the construction company who holds the contract for open pit excavation, Gov of NL (Dept of Trans & Works) (buyer of the product), community of Swift Current and the Barrington NL Mc extended family…so it has nothing to do with me anymore, it’s none of my business….so if this research were conducted 20 years ago the controversial sand quarry in question would not have been approved by provincial government authorities and we wouldn’t be scrambling now to clean up a big mess after the fact when the damage is done….with regard to the pending inter-and-multi-disciplinary research on the Mc-Mont presence at Nukamkia’ji’jk I am not interested in conducting anymore research on this area of study, for that is the responsibility of other interested researchers and NL Mc descendants… please note that I am only interested in the pending archaeological survey of both the Red Indian Pond campsite and Huskie Outlook (or Shoprock), Dirty (or Indian) Scrape, the identity of the Mont-Beo woman at Trinity, and by extension a future WGS study between the Peck and Barrington patrilines…NL Mc ethnohistory and family history or genealogy are out of my research focus as it doesn’t have anything to do with me or my family, as they are not my people, so it’s none of my business anymore….although I can cite here 7 instances in the history of the Peck/Pick family with ancient connections to Plaisance where we had contact with NL Mc & Abenaki from the “burn event” in Stock Cove (1670) to the Martin family at Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole (1880-1902), but hunting-working-warfare partnerships and female exogamy (Peck females marrying NL Mc) does not imply any gene flow from them to us, so in other words there is not an ounce of Mc blood in my family line and that is the truth… so to make a long story short and to be truthful, I am only interested in the untold Beothuk side of the story in Piper’s Hole and not the Mc one…I have contributed all that I can give on the NL Mc side of the story….it’s out of my hands now and surrendered back to the NL Mc where it belongs…to summarize, I am not interested in publishing anything in the public domain on the NL Mc presence in Piper’s Hole, nor do I want to be directly involved in any future interdisciplinary research study on Piper’s Hole Mi’kmaq… I can only act as a “silent supporter” or unpaid consultant or informant orbiting in the outer sphere of influence….the call of papers referenced here in this website is nothing more than a plea for other researchers to take it on and carry the load so that I can “walk away from it” and “wash my hands”….I really don’t want anything to do with it anymore trust me….my only pending research projects now are only limited to setting up the following: 1.) a family and community-based owned and operated ecotourism guiding business (Pike Place Ecotourism Guiding) for the Tickle Harbour, TB South area, highlighting the ancient pre-contact and post-contact NA and WE occupation history; and 2.) a sustainable eel fish farming or sustainable aquaculture business or venture (Eel Brook Fisheries Ltd.), located at Eel Brook (Ruisseau de l’anguille), Long Point (Pointe longue), Tickle Harbour (or Sandy Bay-Mc Kepamkwitk), in memory of my family’s relationship with eel potting and spearing in the area and also as a commemoration to Poor Old Johnnie Martin, both of which are intended to stimulate the local economies there and to preserve the family-community history and way of eel harvesting for future generations …I really don’t have anything else to say on the area of NL Mc ethnohistory, family history of genealogy anymore….likewise the multi-season movie-documentary referenced above which could take anywhere from 10-20 years from now and a large cadre of investor group cash flow stimulus, can be spearheaded by another researcher-writer, or group thereof-I’m not interested in being directly involved in this long-term, “pipe dream”, interdisciplinary research project and production…. perhaps someday someone can interview me and ask me my life story and they can share that information in the public domain in a book-with my written permission and legal counsel of course…but someone else will have to write that book with my or my family’s permission….perhaps someday I will share what I know about Red Indian Pond, but then again the archaeologists and archaeo-geneticists will figure it out sooner or later….and yes there is a body of a Beo shaman (yep that’s right) buried at this ancient campsite dated to the summer of 1817, and it’s now up to PAO and its team of archaeologists to see if they are smart enough to find him-I’m going to sit back and watch the events unfold from a distance and enjoy the unfolding drama … I hope that Dorothy keeps this message on-line and doesn’t cave in to growing ethnopolitical censorship to have it deleted….thanks…namaste…

  6. Another message for Devon…in the coming 2-3 mths I will transfer my mom’s Ancestry DNA atDNA test results to FTDNA Family Finder and then change the parametric setting on Gedmatch to make public my mom’s atDNA so you can do some private chromosome painting and browsing…sound good…but I’m 99 per cent positive that it wont show any connection between the Saunders-Joe-Blanchard patriline…the same argument also applies to the biological mother of my paternal great-great-grandfather John R. Peck/Pick, who in all probability was French or part-French Indian-note the Western European or West Eurasian woman, of possible French descent) seen by Buchan at Red Indian Lake in 1811…although a Labrador Indian connection is known according to family and community oral traditions and suggestive of family photographs, Fanny Bowe may have been a “pure blood” white woman, with no NA/Inuit ancestry, where her phenotypic craniofacial soft tissue features converge by accidental coincidence w/ NA/Siberian groups…who knows God only knows…the 1.2% Northern Amerindian atDNA BGEO percentages, according to skeptics or critics, may be nothing more than “white noise” or statistical coincidence-note that some present day German test participants sometimes show app. 1-3.0% NA/Siberian atDNA-perhaps a reflex of elevated ancient Yamnaya-Maykop ancestry….God only knows!

  7. Hi Devon, just a final note here…if I were an up-and-coming archival researcher specializing in NL Mc-Mont Ethnohistory and were exploring the unanswered questions of NL Mc-Mont origins and the interface of Lab Innu and NL Mc interactions (as started by C. Martijn), I would seriously review the HBC (Hudson’s Bay Company) manuscript collection for the Old French Treaty Shore of the GNP (Great Northern Peninsula) that was relocated to Ungava Bay, Que..this collection should contain journals, ledgers, account books and perhaps parish registers of Lab-Que Innuat bands overwintering as a funded HBC fort homefront in the local GNP area, and presumably by logical inference the extent of interaction between them and local in situ NL Mc and Mc-Mont bands or extended kin groups….I don’t know if Charles Martijn already had a look at this collection or not yet (cf. C. Martijn’s article on Innu & Inuit Place Names in the Northern Peninsula….)…it could also potentially reveal the identity of Indians residing at Quirpon-Cape Norman and surrounding environs….another area of potential high yield would be examining the merchant records collections for ship registers and logbooks for instances where ordained ship chaplains baptized NL Mc passengers (cf. reference in O. Janzen’s article “The Royal Navy and the Interdiction of Aboriginal Migration to Newfoundland, 1763-1766″….)….the Old FTS (French Treaty Shore) and, in particular, the Port-aux-Choix Seigneury is still one of the last frontiers of NL Mc Ethnohistory that have not been examined yet and this would make an interesting research study project for a graduate student in Anthropology…

  8. Here is a National Geographic link on an article titled: “Ancient Islanders Visited by Columbus Not ‘Extinct, Study Finds”, the survival of Taino (Arawakan) atDNA in present Taino descendants of Puerto Rico-despite long held reports and official government claims of mass extinction-perhaps a foreshadowing and “warming up” of things to come for Newfoundland Mi’kmaq descendants w/ suspected distant Beothuk ancestry!


    Other articles suggest that as much as app. 10.0-15.0 % of the Puerto Rican Taino genome matches that of the aDNA Taino sample from the Caribbean Island(s):


    Question remains: is this shared genomic signature a product of divergence from an ancient pre-contact mainland population, or a post-contact back migration (diaspora) of Taino emigres fleeing the Caribbean Islands to mainland Central America! Once again determining directionality of gene flow from ancient DNA samples and reported living descendants from extant populations is difficult if not impossible….

  9. Does anyone else suspect Elizabeth Joe Blanchard & Mary Park Brooks (related through mtdna) to be Beothuk? Around their time, Beothuk children were kidnapped and brought into Mi’kmaq communities, and Beothuk women were being taken to England (such as Mary). Apparently Mary had an Indian name and was renamed Mary Park… similar to Shawnadithit being renamed Mary March? Maybe these women assimilated into the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq community for survival. Could explain the brick wall, and maybe why their mtdna matches so many from Finland (near Beringia) as well – Beothuk were closer related to the Innu than the Mi’kmaq according to some sources.

    Curious if anyone’s thought similar?

    1. I personally suspect that the X2a.. mtDNA HVR I-II & MFSs of the Joe (Joseph or Sylvester) matrline mitogenomes showing up in Joe descendants may in fact be of Beothuk origin. Bioarchaeological or paleogenetic (aDNA) researchers who studied the full mtDNA sequences of 19 Beo skeletal and/or mummified remains allude to the possibility that Beo, MAI and by inference NL Mc may be related going back….:

      Current Biology, Duggan et al.: “Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada” , DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.08.053

      I personally don’t know much about the Park patriline from the BOI areas, but I did see a photograph of a Park Indian woman on-line years ago and my impression of that photograph, was that the soft tissue or craniofacial features cluster closer to the Oqwatnukewaq “Northern People” (Mont-Nask and perhaps also Beo) or Soqpi’sijik “Wet Speakers” and not NL-NS Mc. I would not rule out a connection between the Joe patriline and the NL Red Indians given the emerging aDNA and comparative genetic genealogy evidence. Yes based on reconstructed and surviving ethnohistoric and ethnographic evidence elicited from known Beo survivors the Beothuk do cluster closer to Lab Innuat (Mont-Nask); however, the reconstructed diachronic evidence reconstructed from the surviving word lists or vocabularies presents a less obvious picture suggesting a three layered evolutionary sub-structuring consisting of: 1.) an Old Algonquian or perhaps pre-Algonquian substrate perhaps contemporaneous to or predating the split of PCA-PEA from Proto-Algic (Ritwan); 2.) an Innu (Mont-Nask) substrate reflected in PA *p> Beo m (also attested in the East Cree-Mi’kmaq dialect continuum), PA * -k > Beo -t; and 3.) a NL Mc (Ktaqmkukewaq) substrate (changed conjunct verbs, plant-animal lexical etyma, human given names based on the changed conjunct participle, ….). Disregarding inherited archaisms of Old Algonquian attested in Beo and morpholexical innovations in Beo resulting from a Recent Indian (Little Passage) divergence from the Quebce North Shore-SE Labrador speech community, concerning the latter two substrate tiers, several comments can be expounded, namely the Innu substrate presumably derives from sustained language contact (extending from the pre-contact period to the late post-contact one where some Beo emigres or refugees (app. 6) migrated to Lab ca. 1826-28), resulting from sustained friendly relations between NL RI and Lab Innuat groups, while the NL Mc substrate derives from early contact period interaction between NL Mc and Nl RI at Meski’k Tuitn “Big Gut”. The question remains did some Beo or RI emigres who migrated to Lab ca. 1826-28 mixing w/ local Lab Mont-Nask, Inuit and Kablunanngajuit kin groups back migrate to Newfoundland ca. 1830-1860! Why would they not this was their home for app. 1400-2000 years before their official extinction or rather diaspora and assimilation into neighboring kin groups. I sincerely think that it is very naive for us to believe or think in the absence of conclusive forensic investigation evidence otherwise! This is one of the biggest unanswered questions in modern North American NA ethnohistoric research open to debate. But over time through continued archaeogenetic research the secrets will be revealed slowly over time and teased out of the ancient human remains. So once the whole genome sequencing is completed on the Beo mummified and skeletal remains a comparative baseline can be reconstructed on what is and what is not unique to the Beo genome. Even if we use 1400 years BP as the starting point for a Beo presence here in NL or Terre Neuve w/ the Little Passage Indian archaeological complex, w/ 70 mutations per generation, we are looking at app. 3920 SNPs unique to the Beo. If we extrapolate backwards and factor in the Innuat connection through intermarriage w/ an app. 50.0 % rate of intermarriage between NL RI and Lab-Que NS Innuat, that would hypothetically give app. 1,960 SNPs. Furthermore, if we take into consideration that NL Mc families at the turn of the 20 th. century were 1/2 Mont-Nask (as per Speck’s research) this would give a so called pure blood NL Mc-Mont w/ 1/2 of this Beo genomic signature or mutation marker residue so theoretically app. 980 SNPs. So if one were to have a reported or putative uniparental Beo ancestor going back 6-7 Gens, at 1.0-1.5% of their genome, this would give anywhere from app. 10-40 SNPs unique to the Beo! So yes, 10,000,00 SNP whole genome sequencing and not partial targeted array genome sequencing can tease out or identify rare mutation markers in the human genome, that the latter will otherwise overlook. IMHO I sincerely that a potential anthropology graduate student should collate and analyze all of the published NL Mc elder eyewitness accounts encounters with Pi’tawkewaq survivors ca. immediately before and after ca. 1829. Furthermore, I have personally “cracked the code” of the now extinct language from the existing diachronic evidence (namely tr/dr clusters, left edge prosodically motivated segmental and syllabic deletion, debuccalization-lenition, morpho-lexical reconstruction based on semantics,….) which other anthropological linguistic or comparative historical linguistic researchers have overlooked. Yes Beo is a divergent Algonquian language w/ several layers of substrate layering reflecting its ancient interaction w/ local NA kin groups. And yes my friend, emerging aDNA evidence reconstructed through WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing) will answer the question, and IMHO will prove that some NL Mc and even NL Anglo-Irish families will show a small percentage of rare and/or unknown to date Beo atDNA (1-22, and perhaps X-chromosome) mutation markers. Some of these markers have already been found in some NL Mc families, so this is not a matter of fanciful “pipe dream” speculation or conjecture of “putting the horse before the cart”. Stay tuned there will be a lot of interesting and history changing results “coming down the pipeline” in the next. The future atDNA test study and the final paper publication are just the final touch of putting the official seal of approval on what paleogeneticists and FN leaders in closed inner circles already know-some of the Beo genome has survived among NL Mc descendants….true!

    2. New autosomal dna evidence is pointing towards a Hollett matriach being related to the Saunders, Park & Blanchard lines. Working on an mtDNA test for that line. PIPERSHOLEMAN has posted about a particular group of Holletts who inherited a two page lexicon of Beothuck words. New mtDNA evidence that has come to light now suggests a connection between Elizabeth wife of Lewis Lavhey (suspected to be Bernard) of Terrenceville, Fortune bay and was Mikmaq, and to that of Hannah Mariah wife of John Williams who is said to be Mikmaq descent. Lots of connections being made and no doubt when I get all of my dna eveidence back.. within the next month i will be submitting a part two of this article for Dorothy’s approval.

      1. The Hollett connection sounds interesting…all I know for certain is that the Holletts of Rantem, TB South originating from Harbour Buffet-Sound Island-Piper’s Hole, PB are related to the Peck family of PHR, PB-THr, TB South, the former having at least 3-4 shared Peck ancestors according to published parish registers at least, where both groups shared many similarities in facial features reflecting this recent ancestry ….I look fwd to reading Pt II of your article as Pt I is very interesting and well researched…I am certain that Pt II will be a fascinating read indeed…note that the phylogeographic and typological provenience or origin of the vocabulary in question has not been determined with absolute confidence, but it is possible that some of the etyma in the word lists may or may not be of Beo origin…I have neither seen nor studied the word list so I am not in a professional position to pass judgement yet…so its hard to tell….the Piper’s Hole, PB and Terrenceville, FB connection is not surprising given the short distance from Terrenceville to Piper’s Hole River via the intervening and interconnected Dunne’s Brook-Paradise River and Sandy Harbour River watershed drainage areas…note that Terrenceville is very close to where the small band of Beo emigres or splinter group survivors were seen by Peter John Sr. and Lewis John ca. 1828, app. 14 miles upriver on the western side of the mouth Long Harbour River (Pijipukwek)…note also that Terrenceville is very close to Grand Bank and Brunette Island (Sa’npatistek), where the John (Baptiste) family of Piper’s Hole, PB-Long Harbour River-Conne River, FB were reported to have lived…although direct proof is currently lacking to prove otherwise I suspect that the Joseph (Joe) patriline of Conne River, FB and Gambo-King’s Cove, BB (w/ a suspected RI/Beo connection perhaps emanating from the Hall’s Bay), also resided at one time in the ancient NL Mc village of Nukamkia’ji’jk, Indian Cove, PHR, PB…why not, it’s logical to assume that almost all of the NL Mc-Mont families residing at Conne River, FB and Saint Pierre et Miquelon once inhabited Nukamkia’ji’jk as part of their seasonal round or migration route…it was an ancient living place shared by both NL Mc-Mont and WE Anglo-Irish settlers…keep up the great work Devon you have a fiery passion for this type of research and I strongly encourage you to publish your research findings in a book or manuscript….

        1. Came across this a while ago, forgot about it….it references a 1680 French report identifying the presence of a NL Mc village of app. 240 residents located somewhere near Plaisance, as opposed to one further west on the south coast of app. 200 people (Evans 2016: 47)…the latter in all probability Miawpukwek…

          Evans, Lee. 2016. The Placentia Area-a Changing Mosaic. ms. (Google Books-No Publisher)

          In all probability, the former NL Mc village was either Mekwe’saqji’jk “Red Island” or Nukmamkia’ji’jk “Sandy Harbour (or Piper’s Hole River)….question remains :can this ethnohistoric evidence be reconciled or collated with future archival, archaeological an archaeogenetic evidence…the latter option makes more sense w/ Mekwe’saqji’jk as a temporary seasonal base camp or stop over point as per Nl Mc oral traditions, functioning much like the Magdalen Islands, Anticosti and perhaps St. Paul’s Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence….just some food for thought… that’s all for now…

      2. Hannah Mariah wife of John Williams, would that be the same woman that lived in Woody Island, PB and then settled in Pools Cove FB and died there? If so that would be my husband’s GG Grandmother and we would appreciate any information on her that you would like to share. Email address is:

      1. I think that T. Joe fellow might have been a shaman or at least knew about Lab shamanic conjuring (scapulimancy)…he also might have known about Lab Mont-Nask shaking tent ceremony (kushapatshikan)….that connection doesn’t surprise me w/ the Joe line….best…

  10. As researchers and/or lay readers should know by now my primary interest in the history and ethnography of the Piper’s Hole River Mi’kmaq-Montagnais has been and continues to be the reclamation and protection of Indian Cove (aka Brown’s Island) (Nukamkia’ji’jk). The reconstructed family history-genealogy, comparative genetic genealogy and ancient DNA studies are nothing more than an ethnopolitical means to an end to legitimize the reclamation process. In light of that long-term research project goal, I am hereby forwarding into the public domain an expression of interest to call on other interested researchers and research consultants to initiate and undertake within the coming 3-5 years a large-scale, interdisciplinary research paper or manuscript that will culminate in the eventual publication of such said ethnohistory-ethnography in a scholarly quarterly research journal such as Ethnohistory or as a book launch. Such a inter-and-multidisciplinary collaborative research team effort would take approximately 3-5 years to complete from initial drafting to final editing and submission for publication screening, and would require shared input from a cohort or cadre of interested and knowledgeable researchers from many diverse academic fields, such as anthropological linguistics (historical-comparative linguistics-onomastics), archaeology-anthropology, archaeogenetics (bioarchaeology or archaeological genetics), cartography-topography, ethnohistory-ethnography, free lance writing-independent research, medical genetics, molecular genetics and community-family history (such as Swift Current community members and Barrington direct patrilineal-matrlineal descendants). I am willing to act as a third party, volunteer research consultant-informant or mediator-facilitator to provide any input or consultation where my research skills and knowledege may be deemed beneficial and productive to the fulfillment of the long-term research goal. IMHO if I were to initiate such a long-term study I would set it up legally to have all of the profits and proceeds from the sale of such said book to be forwarded to a secured trust fund to fund and subsidize the reclamation-repatriation of Indian Cove, in lieu of NL Provincial Government, and Miawpuk(w)ek Mi’kmawey Mawio’mi and NCC (Nature Conservancy of Canada) consultation and governance to have the land extending S by SSW from Hayse’s Cove to Rattling Brook and Brown’s Island inclusive to be transferred in title from the existing and expired land grants to NL Mc governing authorities for the eventual construction of a NL Mc interpretation centre-museum and perhaps traditional healing centre. Such a research project when completed will expedite the goal of manifesting the funding and construction of such a NL Mc interpretation centre which will be promoted as a licensed -registered ecotourism guiding business and recognized provincial cultural heritage site, will eventually stimulate the local Black River-Swift Current economies. If Mr. John Barrington were alive today sitting on his house step smoking his pipe at Indian Cove looking west at Rattling Brook it would bring a smirk of honor and pride to his face-it’s the right thing to do and the vision of Mr. Barrintgon is long overdue and worthy of recognition. My ole buddy Alphonse Barrington, with a tear in his eye, would also say the same thing.


      1. If and/or when the communities of Swift Current, PB and Conne River, FB initiate such an ecotourism guiding business venture in the coming 7-10 years or more, I would sign a legal document relinquishing all propietary rights of research title so that neither I nor any future direct patrilineal descendant would profit from the sales or proceeds of such ethnohistorical research and/or ecotourism guiding in the Black River-Piper’s Hole watershed area, as it outside the scope or purview of our family’s fiduciary and financial entitlement, as recognized by provincial-federal government legislation, given the fact that my paternal ancestors of Anglo-Irish origin with a distant French and/or French Indian (Mont or perhaps even Beo) connection going back 6-7 Gens, emigrated from this area ca. 1932-34, do not have a direct NL Mc connection-although circumstantial evidences points in that direction-and relinquished all shared title to ownership and profit. The present researcher and certain members of my patriline along with some interested community residents from the THr area are only interested in establishing a family and community owned and operated ecotourism guiding business in the Trinity Bay South area, extending from Tickle Harbour to Sunnyside, with ancient FN & WE archaeological sites of Stock Cove, Bull Arm and Frenchman’s (Sunnyside) Island, focusing on the French invasion of TB South as per father Beaudoin’s War or D’iberville’s Campaign (1696-97) and perhaps the Beo occupation of Stock Cove up until ca. 1670 or later. I sincerely wish the residents of Swift Current and the neighbouring regions with a direct connection to Mr. John Barrington and Newfoundland Mi’kmaq through Conne River, FB the best in assuming ownership and responsibility for this project. My only wish is that one day in the distant future if and/or when an interpretation site comes to fruition at Indian Cove, PHR that my family will be remembered with a brief comment something like this: “Local community oral traditions claim that Brown’s Island, Indian Cove was once named P..e Place, presumably deriving its name from an Anglo-Irish settler family emanating from Trinity, TB North & Tickle Harbour, TB South, with a distant reported and/or suspected French or French Indian connection to the Black River-Piper’s Hole watershed areas”. As a final note, in the name of altruism it would be very discouraging if the comments on this website succumb to censorship and suffer the fate of other website blogs on the same research topic resulting in inevitable deletion of messages. I have nothing more to say other than that I wish the community of Swift Current, Newfoundland Mi’kmaq and Barrington direct descendants the best in their endeavours of rgaining ownership and empowerment of the long-term research goal; hopefully, one day in the distant future a NL Mc interpretation centre will stand at Indian Cove-only time will tell!


    1. This is the right decision for now given the unfolding ethnopolitical circumstances…I sincerely thank you for embedding this comment back in this blog and for all of your support and interest…give it 5-7 years and I will get back to it…right now my commitments and foci are outside of NL FN ethnohistoric research and are devoted to starting a family …I will get back to you in 5-7 years and with a written guarantee of immunity or protection with no recorders or video cams, I will disclose what I know about what really happened at Red Indian Pond and Shoprock Indian Scrape… if archaeologists are interested I can go in there with them in a helicopter or floater plane and show them the campsite -consisting of 1 mammateek, a round mi’tshuap and storehouse…I can also guide them to the remains of the Old Man…when I am ready and comfortable of course…I will also tell them who was in the splinter group, what happened to them and what really transpired at Indian Scrape, Piper’s Hole River, during the late summer of 1817…the campsite was only occupied during the late fall of 1816 to late summer 1817…the Old Man who was banished from the splinter group lived there alone at the hill top lookout (late March) until he was joined by other members in early spring of 1817… the other campsite where the RI survivors were hiding out before they moved to PHR was located between Red Indian Pond and Goose Pond, in the South West River-Clode Sound watershed…I will also share how the …… ……… meshes in with paranormal and transcendental phenomena (precognition, clairvoyance….) and how it engendered a natural selection, evolutionary “fight or flight” survival advantage in mixed blood survivors…and I will also talk about what really happened at Stock Cove…but not yet I will get back to you in around 5-7 years…when the ethnopolitical fuss over B…..k repatriation-reburial blows over…the terms and conditions of this non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement will have to be worked out w/ NL Mc elders and various attested living descendants…true…namaste…

  11. This is for Devon or Pipershole man !!
    My husband is the grandson of Alphonsus Barrington Sr and John Barrington is his great grandfather and would like to have his DNA testing done. How do I proceed on where to properly get a reliable DNA test. Could you please send me information for this. I would appreciate it very much. Thanks

    1. In terms of identifying and/or quantifying the percentage of NA BGEO each commercial genetic genealogy vendor (e.g., FTDNA, 23andMe, AncestryDNA) offers atDNA testing to predict NA origins. However, one should note that the reference populations that determine NA ancestry for each of the three testing companies derives from Central American NAs such as Karitiana and Surui. So looking at FTDNA as but one example that uses app. 26 global reference populations out of a panel or array of app. 700,000 SNPs, this would give app. 26, 923 SNPs NA AIMs (Ancestry Informative Markers) found only or at relatively high frequencies among NA groups. So app. 26, 923 SNPs out of a total of app. 10,000,000 SNPs in a individual’s whole genome gives app. 0.26923% of intra-genomic variation. To date the 3 popular commercial genetic genealogy testing companies do not have reference population samples (extinct or extant) from Eastern Algonquian (e.g., Mi’kmaq, Mal-Pass, Penobscot, Abenaki,…) or Central Algonquian (East Cree, Lab Mont-Nask, Que North Shore Mont….), not alone extinct Beothuk (although that study is now pending). So in attempting to identify NA ancestry for a uniparental NA ancestor like Mr. John Barrington (b. ca. 1825-whether of NL Mc, Mont or even Pi’tawkewaq ancestry) emanating from a peripheral contact zone like the Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas, one should exercise caution in placing too much weight to the atDNA tests currently available on the market through the three commercial genetic genealogy testing companies for the following reasons: 1.) lack of Eastern-Central Algonquian samples in the reference population database from the northeastern edge or periphery of North America; 2.) PHR-BR represents a peripheral contact zone where NL Mc, Lab Mont-Nask and even Beothuk interacted and potentially intermarried, so there is an added dimension or layered stacking of ancestral contribution to the genome which cannot be accurately determined or quantified until the whole genome sequencing of Lab Mont-Nask and the 19-20 pending Beo samples are completed; 3.) atDNA tests currently offered by commercial genetic testing companies are only accurate at identifying shared common ancestry within 5-6 Gens-so attempting to trace ancestry anything beyond that say in 8-9 Gens, either uniparentally or biparentally, through recombining atDNA gets really tricky and can predictably yield false positives or white background noise; 4.) atDNA tests can give biased or skewed My Origin results that are oftentimes inflated or exaggerated in showing shared common ancestry-in other words 2nd-3rd cousin matches can go back to an ancient shared ancestor living 1000 years or more BP; and 5.) for whatever reason unbeknownst to molecular geneticists, archaeogeneticists (bioarchaeologists) and genetic genealogists don’t understand why NA BGEO AIMs in recombining atDNA wash out faster 5-6 Gen uniparental direct descendants-so some siblings show higher NA percentages while other siblings show lower and/or nil NA percentages. So long story short it would be more advisable to contact a private aDNA or molecular genetics department at a university such as McMaster University Ancient DNA Centre or MUN Genetics, the former affiliated with the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Genetics conducting the ongoing atDNA study of the Beo mummified and/or skeletal remains, and the latter NL Mc atDNA. It is known that some registered NL Mc families have submitted atDNA samples for comparison w/ NL Red Indian or Beo sample collections. So long story short the only way to answer the deep questions about tracing the ancestry of NL Mc-Mont Like John Barrington w/ a suspected Beo connection is to wait for the whole genome sequencing of Lab Innuat and NL RI.

      1. As a precaution to putting too much blind faith in FTDNA Family Finder’s My Origins calculated degree of relatedness from a TMRCA. I would like to cite recent FTDNA Family Finder (2016) test results for a participant, a registered LIA/Nunatsiavut member whose maternal ancestors emanate from Rigolet (Rigoletimiut), that seriously calls into question the way that commercial genetic genealogy testing companies like FTDNA estimate or predict degrees of shared relatedness. As a trusted close personal friend with her consent I can share here in the public domain here My Origin test results: 30.0% East Asia (Siberia); 17.0% New World (15.0% North and Central North America & 2.0% South America), plus 2.0% North Eastern Siberia (Beringian) and 1.0% (South Eastern Asia)-so a total of 50.0% non-European (Asia/New World) plus 50.0% European. This result is in accord with the attested cranio-facial soft-tissue features for members of this Inuit patriline/matriline, reconstructed surviving parish registers or church records and community-family oral traditions. So it does seem that FTDNA Family Finder My Origins is relatively accurate at predicting or estimating NA/Siberian BGEO percentages for 1/2 (50.0%) descendants, but like other parallel case studies among documented 5-6 Gen (1/64-1/8 blood quantum) uniparental NA descendants unequivocally demonstrate the ability of such atDNA tests to detect and measure NA/Siberia AIMs beyond 1/8 (12.5%) significantly diminishes. While the propietary FTDNA algorithmic calculator is relatively accurate in predicting BGEO percentages up to and including 1/8 blood quantums, where anomalous or contradictory test results can derive from wash out events as outlined previously, the algorithmic calculators for estimating shared degrees of relatedness are way off the mark! As an example using the case study of the Lab Inuit person in question above, her 2nd-3rd cousin matches without question all emanate from West-North Greenland Inuit! So the question remains how do the Lab Inuit and Greenland Inuit share ancestry at the 2nd-3rd (75-90 years BP) cousin level when, according to archaeological and reconstructed diachronic historical-comparative linguistic evidence at least, both groups obviously diverged from a common shared Neo-Inuit (Thule) ancestor originating somewhere around Ellesmere Island ca. 2500 BP! The test participant in question can trace maternal and paternal ancestry back to Northern Labrador for app. 200-250 years, so why are the estimated degrees of shared relatedness way off the mark by at least 1000-2000 years BP. The only obvious explanation for such internally inconsistent or paradoxical test results is that the AIMs used in the targeted panel or array to define NA/Siberian (and for that fact other global reference populations) are slow mutating atDNA markers that reflect ancient or deep shared ancestry and not recent common ancestry. So unless the atDNA test results can be backed up or corroborated with converging genealogical, ethnohistoric, community-family oral traditions or rare private mutation markers found almost exclusively or solely in one reference population, then the genetic genealogy customer or client should exercise extreme caution and interpret the test results with a common sense “grain of salt” subject to more follow-up research study.

      2. Thanks for the info! I will pass this onto my husband as i am guessing that he probably won’t be getting his DNA tested as there could never truly be an honest company out there worthwhile in giving the correct information

        1. The next step in determining the BGEOs for the Mc-Mont families from PHR-BR, PB is to wait for the upcoming SSHRC-funded atDNA study of the Beo and MAI skeletal and/or mummified remains to be completed and published in a scholarly academic journal. In the meantime, until that time when the comparative aDNA study is completed it would be fortuitous and visionary for living NL Mc-Mont descendants of the Barrington patriline, and other families emanating from the same area suspected to be related to the Barringtons, to lobby molecular geneticists and archaeogeneticists in procuring DNA samples for future preservation and comparative research analysis. The answers to the questions that most descendants and interested researchers in the field are waiting for are hidden in the recombining atDNA, and until that whole genome sequencing is completed many of the unanswered questions on who John Barrington was or to which group he traced his BGEO from will remain unanswered. However, looking at the physical descriptions for Mr. John Barrington left behind by early geological surveyors-explorers (Howley 1868) and the only surviving photograph we now have a clearer picture of who John Barrington was is beginning to emerge. IMHO I can honestly say after looking at thousands of photographs of NL-NS-NB-Que Mc and Lab Innuat-Innuts (e.g., unpublished multivolume set of early Mont Indian photographs) as well as Quebec North Shore Innu, that the soft tissue craniofacial features of Mr. Barrington align or cluster closer to the Que North Shore Innu, which is in accord with other ethnographic-ethnohistoric evidence that points to a Lab Mont (Soqpi’isijik) (and perhaps also Beo or Pi’tawkewaq, where the latter may be a more distantly related southern continuum extension of the former) connection for the NA families (John, Bernard,….) emanating from PHR-BR, PB. One should expect the Beo Institute in lieu of NL Mc and Lab Innuat-Innuts band councils to offer to the general public at a nominal fee a commercial genetic genealogy testing kit to determine any degree of relatedness among living test participants and the Beo and MAI aDNA sample collection. In addition to the Beo-MAI reference populations one should also expect NL-NS-NS-Que Mc and Lab-Que Innuat-Innuts as reference populations in the database. In addition to answering the question if one has a low-percentage Beo BGEO ancestry, it can help genetic genealogists of the atDNA clusters closer to neighboring Eastern and Central Algonquian groups. So after the 750,000-1.5 million partial whole genome sequencing study is completed on the ancient Beo-MAI DNA remains in the coming 3-5 years, with an expansion thereafter in the following 3-5 years to include a complete whole genome (10,000,000 SNP) comparative study, the customer and/or dedicated researcher should expect a robust informative test kit that should answer most of the research questions if not guide the researcher in the right direction. So we’re looking at app. 7-10 years before this finished genetic genealogy testing kit can and will become available to the general public!

    2. Here is a link for Illumina’s WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing) webpage, that highlights the advantages of WGS over partial targeted array sequencing currently offered by popular commercial genetic genealogy testing companies or vendors:


      [Excerpt starts here]

      •Provides a high-resolution, base-by-base view of the genome
      •Captures both large and small variants that might otherwise be missed
      •Identifies potential causative variants for further follow-on studies of gene expression and regulation mechanisms
      •Delivers large volumes of data in a short amount of time to support assembly of novel genomes

      “Unlike focused approaches such as exome sequencing or targeted resequencing, which analyze a limited portion of the genome, whole-genome sequencing delivers a comprehensive view of the entire genome. It is ideal for discovery applications, such as identifying causative variants and novel genome assembly. Whole-genome sequencing can detect single nucleotide variants, insertions/deletions, copy number changes, and large structural variants. Due to recent technological innovations, the latest genome sequencers can perform whole-genome sequencing more efficiently than ever.”
      [Excerpts ends here]

      So yes WGS can identify with high resolution rare and/or unknown mutation markers that targeted array sequencing can overlook. Such high coverage and resolution genome wide sweeping has practical relevance and application to probing the genomes of attested descendants tracing ancestry back to a uniparental ancestor as far back as 8-9 Gens and not 5-6 Gens as currently offered by CGG vendors.

      Here is what ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogists) has to say about the accuracy of atDNA testing:

      [Start of Extract]

      Autosomal DNA tests can be used to confirm relationships with a high level of accuracy for parent/child relationships and all relationships up to the second cousin level. For all relationships additional contextual and genealogical information is required to confirm the nature of the relationship.

      For genealogical relationships between second cousins once removed and 5th cousins a more careful approach is necessary and data needs to be collected from multiple family members. For relationships at the 4th cousin once removed to 5th cousin level you may need to test 10 to 20 or more first and second cousins and see how much autosomal DNA they share with a potential 4th cousin once removed or a potential 5th cousin in order to have sufficient data to generate a statistically significant average amount of autosomal DNA that is shared among the entire group, assuming that you are dealing with a non-endogamous population. See Tim Janzen’s summary at for an example of this type of quantitative approach. For endogamous populations, genealogical relationships are frequently difficult to estimate beyond about the 2nd cousin level of relationship and require careful analysis.

      Genealogical relationships beyond the 5th cousin level of relationship are more difficult to prove with autosomal DNA testing and, as a general rule, these can only be approached using triangulation. In some cases Y-DNA and mtDNA data may also be of help.

      [End of Extract]


      Regarding an “isolated” endogamous population like the now extinct Newfoundland Red Indians (Mc Mekwe’jijik/ Wsaq(a)naq/Oqwatnukewaq/Pi’tawkewaq), assuming minimal unidirectional gene flow between NL Mc and Pi’tawkewaq it is theoretically possible that there are app. 5,600 SNP markers unique to or found almost exclusively among NL Red Indian groups, given that atDNA does mutate at a constant predicted rate of app. 70 mutations/Gen (2000 YBP/25 Yr/Gen = 80×70=5,600). The atDNA mutation rate has been calculated with a high degree of accuracy among molecular geneticists summarized as follows:

      “Whole genome sequencing has established the mutation frequency for whole human genomes. The mutation frequency in the whole genome between generations for humans (parent to child) is about 70 new mutations per generation.”……


      I suspect that for a family like the Barringtons emanating from PHR-BR, PB (or Miawpukek, FB) the molecular geneticist is looking at a lower limit range of app. 1.0-3.0% NA to an upper limit range of app. 3.0-5.0% NA BGEO, with a small cluster of rare and/or unknown atDNA mutation markers.

      I hope this informational tidbit helps the interested reader in noting some of the precautionary pitfalls of placing too much emphasis or weight on current, direct-to-consumer, commercial genetic genealogy testing products offered on the marketplace. So yes the WGS study coming down the pipeline with the MAI and Beo aDNA sample collections, with an expanded database of living Eastern and Central Algonquian samples will hopefully answer the question once and for all about who outliers such as John Barrington Sr. who occupied a peripheral or fringe contact zone where NL Mc, Mont-Nask, and even Beo interacted and/or intermarried. It is my intuition and “gut instinct” that some of these rare mutation atDNA markers have already been detected and identified-time will tell!

    3. Hi Bernice,
      Best place to test first is , that way you get the most bang for your buck. Once he gets his results on there, you can upload for free to and

      Hope this helps. -Devon

      1. I agree with Devon on exploring this option as a good introductory foundation or primer, but until WGS becomes available to the general public at an affordable cost through CGG vendors in the near future a lot of the deeper research questions will remain unanswered. Just a question for Devon: did you check out the French language journal Recherches Amerindiennes au Quebec? ( If I recall distinctly, there are some references in there to the Cabish families from Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. There’s tons of ethnohistorical, genealogical, family history, land records, and surrogate court records relating to NB-Que Mc, Western Abenaki and Quebec North Shore Montagnais. Some of the articles published in this quarterly scholarly journal have information on Niscambiouit, Tekonomak (Tekouirmat) (Mc-Mont w/ a connection to Cape Sable and Gaspe, Que) (perhaps related to the Secounemac, Tecounemac, Algoumatique, Arguimeau, Tec/dumart, Algoumatinuck, Martin,…all w/ connections to Quebec North Shore Innuat and NL Mc-Mont-so this family of L’kimus traveled around a lot throughout the Island Domain of Mi’kma’kik),….. I do know that your family of Joes (Joseph) have a connection through intermarriage w/ the Cabish (Tqope’j or Mary/Molly) families of Gaspe, Que as do the Vica(i)r(e) one of King’s Cove, BB w/ the Vicar patriline of Gaspe, Que.. So it seems that there are connections w/ NL Mc-Mont families and Gaspe, Que ones, as per NL Mc oral traditions which speak of an ancient naval or coastal migration route (3-5 year) undertaken in ocean-going canoes (maskwi-kwitnn), chaloupes and schooners, extending from U’nama’kik, CBI, NS to Quebec North Shore, and thenceforth extending to Northern-Western Newfoundland. So yeah it seems that all of these coastal CA-EA Nations intermarried while the Mi’kmaq stopped over on their journey to Ktaqmkuk, as reflected in the high percentage of Mikmak (sic.) entries listed in Les registres paroissiaux du Québec 1621-1993. Hope this helps with your genealogical research.

    4. Here is an online reference to Barrington DNA testing presumably written by a Barrington direct descendant emanating from Badger Brook, that alludes to the possibility that some Barrintgon descendants may have already been tested through WGS:

      [Start of Extract]

      Molsonmuscle360 –
      The cool thing about that map, is it has the tribe that my family is currently being tested for to find out if we may be the last remaining known family of them. The Beothuk of Newfoundland. My great grandfather and his brothers and sisters were found in the woods by a Englishman, noone really knows where they came from. A handful of my cousins recently underwent DNA testing and we have an unknown marker in our DNA. They are currently looking for any known Beothuk DNA samples to test it against to see if it is similar. But we know we don’t fall under the same DNA as Miq Mak’s.
      I’ve tried to find as much out about my great grandfather and his brothers and sisters, but there really isn’t alot of available information out there, especially since all of their children are also dead. They were very young when they were brought in by John Barrington, the oldest I believe was 7 at the time, the youngest was only a few months old. The most I can really find out is that most of them were hunting guides, and that one of them had all of their children die during world war II, including one on the day after the war officially ended, he was delevering a letter to inform troops that the war was over, and a German sniper took him out.

      Luckily for my ancestors though, the Barrington family treated them very well, and treated them much like their own children. They weren’t treated like idiots or savages, all of them learned to read and write, and some were talented artists. One of their sons actually drew the scene of the Badger Riot, where a police officer got killed with a log, and pretty much 3/4’s of my family was brought in for questioning. The drawing was taken from him though by the RCMP and we never saw it again.

      [End of Extract]


      IMHO some of the Barringtons emanating from Badger Brook, NDB and perhaps some from Swift Current, PB, the former group descending from Alphonsus Barrington Sr. and the lattter group descending from Thos. (Thomas) Francis Barrington, have already been tested through WGS initiated by the Beo Institute and ADC, McMaster University, and the results from the WGSs were already compared to the 19 Beo skeletal-mummified remains. But given confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements testees are sworn to sececy until the final comparative atDNA study and research papers is released in the public domain.

      With regard to my patriline namely the Peck one emanating from Trinity, TB North and Black River-Piper’s Hole, PB, there are 3 pieces of strong reconstructed genealogical-family history circumstantial evidence that links my family to the Montagnais familes from Quirpon-Cape Norman, Trinity, TB North and Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole: 1.) my paternal great-grandfather John Peck (of John Richard Peck & Catherine Lynch) was the first cousin (maternal side) to Mary Lynch of THr, TB South (her biological mother being the sister of Catherine Lynch), adopted by an Indian (Montagnais) woman at Cape Norman (only recorded instance in a published parish record surviving in NL where a WE child or part-NA child was raised by a NA Indian-coincidentally my paternal great-great grandfather John Richard Peck and his wife Catherine Lynch also resided at Quirpon, GNP ca. 1890-5, having connections to French Canadian-and not NS Acadien-residents of Quebec North Shore (Conche RC records); 2.) my paternal great-grandfather John Peck was the nephew of Mary Harriet Peck (sister of John Richard Peck) of Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole who allegedly married NL Mc John Martin Sr. of Piper’s Hole, PB-Conne River, FB; and 3.) the mother of John Richard Peck is reportedly or allegedly the same woman, of presumed Montagnais or mixed Mc-Mont-origin, adopted by the family of Peter Brazil & Anne Basque of Trinity, TB North, where her family name was not Basque or Brazil, as she was adopted and known to be not related by blood to either patriline. To date the identity of this woman emanating from Trinity, TB as reported in the published records from 1819-22, first showing up there during the summer of 1817, is unknown- a first and family name or patronym has not survived, as is the case of the biological mother of John Richard Peck known to have originated from BR-PHR, PB. Not one shred of evidence has survived hinting to her name and identity (in all probability an Anglo-Irish patronym unrelated to NL Mc ones). IMHO my research suggests that the biological mother of John Richard Peck is the older sister of John Barrington Sr. of Indian Cove, PHR, PB, or perhaps the mother of John Barrington Sr. and the mother of John Richard Peck are biological sisters (so both being first cousins)-the latter hypothesis which I lean stronger toward as it fits the surviving reconstructed ethnohistoric evidence best. I seriously doubt that the identity of the unknown Mont woman at Trinity will be known, even when all of the parish pregisters have been trabscribed and collated-and most if not all parish registers have been studied to date with no results. Beyond the reconstructed material culture, linguistic, rare soft tissue craniofacial features and other rare medical conditions, the only thing left in the Peck patriline is app. 1.0-1.5% NA/Siberian atDNA, rare and/or unknown SNP markers not related to other NA groups, and perhaps rare autosomal dominant markers related to rare medical conditions. So until the WGS studies are completed in the coming +5 years, there’s not much if anything left to say on the matter. Plus, there’s not much sense in posting anything on the matter for the simple fact that every website blog on the topic of NL Mc-Mont ancestry-genealogy with any reference to Beothuk in the end ultimately succumbs to the ethnopolitical pressures of censorship-which is constitutionally from a human rights perspective under The Freedom of Information Act both unjust and unconstitutional-shameful actually in this day and age! This information should stay on-line and be exposed to the public domain-almost 200 years have passed since the Beothuk became extinct and to this day polticians and some NA leaders are nervous and/or uncomfrotable talking about the possibility that some Beothuk descendants may have survived here in Newfoundland even if it is 6-7 Gens ago and the estimated BGEO percentages are only around 1.0-1.5% (as predicted by Dr. Ingeborg Marshall). Its all right to say that they emigrated to Lab despite NL Mc oral traditions which speak of elders encountering Beo surviviors in the interior near Long Harbour River, FB ca. 1828-or later. It is known that some Beo survivors (app. 6 in total: 4 men and 2 women) apart from the 9 that stayed on in the interior refusing to emigrate to Lab, were known to emigrate to Lab, according to some Lab Indian oral traditions, mixing w/ local Innuat, Inuit, Kablunangajuit, and Anglo-Irish livyers. However, there were others like the unknown woman from Trinity, TB who disappeared from Trinity and presumably migrated to Lab to return again. From 1822 to 1849 there is a 27 year gap in THr, TB-PHR, PB Peck family history that cannot be accounted for in the surviving population censuses, voter’s lists, business directories, parish registers and official government reports-because they were travelling back and forth from PHR, PB to Southern Labrador, before finally migrating to THr, TB when the Gisbourne Electric Telegraph preliminary and final survey pushed them out in 1850-51. A Labrador connection and/or seasonal transhumance migration-settlement history is preserved in our family oral traditions. A similar argument can be said for the Bowe patriline of Brigus-Cupids, CBN, presumed to be of Mont-Inuit origin and not NL Mc. I would be very surprised if my messages were not deleted and from a risk management and//or investment return perspective it does not make sense anymore to post any commnets on this message board relating to Peck and Bowe ancestry, partly because of the controversial nature of the research and the possibility that these kin groups may be of mixed Beo-WE origin going back 6-7 Gens, perhaps representing back migrating splinter groups. I wish you the best in your research Devon, and I sincerely hope that the Barrintgons find the answers to the questions that they are seeking.


      1. I have read this Extract from MolsonMuscle 360 quite awhile ago as I had stumbled across it from an online site that I just can’t recall. Thanks for posting tho !!

  12. Hi Piperholeman
    After reading your comments, I am convinced that I am a descendent from the Moultons, Martins and Holletts you speak of. My grandmother (Moulton) was from Mortier and her mother was born in Burin, still waiting for my DNA results to come in. Thanks for all your information.

    1. This message is for Woodill (Pike). I agree that the Moultons, Martins and Holletts are all somehow related but I really don’t know the extent of this distant genealogical interrelationship. I must admit that I know next to nothing about the Moulton patriline, while I know some about the Hollett one. I suspect that there may in fact be some truth to the family oral traditions that have survived among Hollett descendants suggesting or alluding to a distant 6-7 Gen NA uniparental female ancestor. This would make sense given the position of Mr. John Hollett Jr. as a merchant middleman or trader in the local area. His name is associated with NL Mc guides hired out from PHR-BR, PB and Conne River, FB in numerous provincial government survey reports. With regard to the so called Indian vocabulary referenced before as inherited among a Hollett direct descendant I am not in a position to comment on the exact phylogenetic affiliation of this word list, although I have professional graduate level training in historical-comparative Eastern Algonquian linguistics. As far as I know, this word list was analyzed by several leading historical-comparative linguists in the field, but neither could determine conclusively if it was an Algonquian type language. All were in accord that it was definitely not an Indo-European language, but at the same time did not display morphophonemic features stereotypically characteristic of Eastern-Central Algonquian languages-so in all probability perhaps some form of a NA secret language or an unattested trade pidgin. In all probability, the wife of Mr. John Hollett may have been either one-half or part NL Mc-Mont, with a connection to in situ PHR-BR and Conne River, FB NL Mc-Mont families given the importance of securing a trusted exchange or trade network between local Anglo-Irish traders and visiting NL Mc-Mont families. So forging a marriage partnership between resident and itinerant guides-hunters-trappers from neighboring NL Mc-Mont kin groups and Anglo-Irish traders would have not only been logistically and strategically pragmatic for both parties but opportunistic and advantageous for the former in gaining access to rare resources and commodities through credit or truck system, while a formalized marriage partnership with a NL Mc female descended from a chief line would not only serve as a symbol of prestige in promoting upward social status mobility but also in consolidating trade relations between both groups to act as an insurance buffer or security against potential default. With regard to the Martin patrilines emanating from PHR-BR, PB in all probability this French and/or French Indian patriline emanates from the Conne River (Miawpukek), FB one. However, it is known that the PHR-BR, PB Martin patriline did frequent the Barren Island, Merasheen, Woody Island , Red Island and Burin Island areas, and according to the unpublished Cacciola-Doutney Family History Collection of PB, there was a substantial group of RC Irish Martins residing at these areas of residence-but it is not known if and/or how they are or maybe related! In addition, the Martin patriline along with the Pecks emanating from PHR-BR, PB also frequented S-SW Red Island to fish for salmon there-a known NL Mc seasonal fishing campsite known as Mekwe’saqji’jk. A future YDNA STR test conducted among NS Mc Martin descendants and Upper PB (Domain of Islands) Martin Irish ones may help to shed some light on this mystery. But I am almost 90.0% certain that they are separate patrilines!

  13. This message is for Devon. I think that your research is very important and you are doing an absolutely amazing job educating the general public about the NL Mc presence in the Fortune Bay, & PB West-PB “Domain of Island”. You should consider collaborating with other researchers on an interdisciplinary research project, such as William Duggan (specialist on John family history), a Barrington direct descendant, and perhaps even Saqamaw Mi’sel Joe, to publish a book/manuscript or even direct a movie-documentary-that would be so cool. It would be a very interesting and enlightening read, as the NL Mc presence in these areas are somewhat downplayed or minimized due to the relative paucity of published research data. In addition, it would be nice to see a future FTDNA Geographic Project Research Project using mtDNA, YDNA, and atDNA data for families emanating from Upper PB-Western PB-Fortune Bay to help genetic genealogists and ethnohistoric researchers like yourself trace NL Mc ancestry among members emanating from or tracing ancestry to these settlement areas-you would make a wicked Project Coordinator for such as project. As my research is already out in the public domain, I encourage any researcher to augment, critique, or incorporate this research body into their existing and future research portfolios. It would be an honor and blessing on my part to have this research continue, so that other dedicated and passionate researchers like yourself can “carry on the torch” of NL Mc Ethnohistory. You have my endorsement and blessing with two thumbs up. Keep up the great work.

  14. I have been trying to trace my Mi’kmaq heritage, I found my great grandfather Thomas Issac Moulton and great grand mother Elizabeth Hawe , I found their children but cant find their marriage certificate. Any idea where they are from originally? She was Mi’kmaq but cant find anything pass 1881,

    1. Hi Joan, any dates for Thomas and Elizabeth? Names of their children? I haven’t got anyone matching your Thomas and Elizabeth or Susan and John Clark, but maybe with more information I could find a match or readers could. Thanks.

    2. Hi Dorothy
      Thomas and Eliza showed up when I googled Moulton in relation to an article by Devon which is on your website but I cant see it in the article. They had 4 children in 1881,1885,1887,1890 , Eliza’s parents were suppose to be from Woody Island. Thomas was born in 1854 but I haven’t found Eliza’s birth date. Her name is often spelled Hawe or Haus, they lived in Burin, Lewin’s Cove (often spelled Loon’s Cove).
      thanks Joan

    3. Hi Joan,

      I have heard a few times before that Elizabeth (Hawe) Moulton was Mi’kmaq Indian. Born in 1860 and came from the Woody Island area of Placentia Bay. Her parents were Elias Hawe(s) and Ruth –? Elias I believe died in 1894. Not sure which one the Mi’kmaq is from.. I suspect Ruth. They eventually seem to have moved to the Burin area by the 1860s.

      At that time living on Woody Island according to parish records were John & Ann Williams. Ann was also Mi’kmaq – with no last name. They had their son Henry baptized the same time as Elias & Ruth’s son Abel in 1838.

      Elizabeth please email back to me if you have any other info. A DNA test would be perfect for this family.


    4. This message is for Woodill (Pike). Came across the Moultons (also spelt Mootons) in the HGA (Harbour Grace Anglican) Vital Statistics records (1865-) for Chance Cove-Rantem, TB. They appear to be connected with the Martins (French and/or French Indian), Holletts and Smiths from there, both of whom are strongly connected to the Piper’s Hole-Black River, PB group through the telegraph line. IDK if this is the same group, but I am almost certain that it is. If my memory serves me correctly, I’m also certain that there are Moultons mentioned in the Family History Records of W. P. Doutney & F. A. Cacciola held at the RC Basilica Archives-a long overdue transcription project. Hope this helps.

      1. PipersHoleMan,
        It would seem Ruth – wife of Elias Hawe(s) may of been Ruth Hollett baptized in 1816 as one of many children of William & Ellen Hollett. Wonder if there is a native connection through Ellen perhaps also.


        1. I do know that some of the Hollets emanating from Salmon Hole & Hayse’s Cove, Piper’s Hole River, descending from John Hollett Jr. (as referenced in Wix 1834) & unknown woman claim to have an Indian connection. I have corresponded w/ a direct descendant from this group who claims to have inherited a 2 page vocabulary of unknown provenience which appears to display lexical features typical of a mixed WE-Algonquian language. IDK if it’s Eastern (NL Mc) or Central (Mont-Nask) Algonquian, or even Beothuk (Pi’tawkewaq)! Regarding the Hawe-Hollett connection it is interesting to note that William (Billy) John (of Peter John & Ellen Hawe) married Catherine Hollett (of John or Jack Hollett) of Rantem, TB-Piper’s Hole, PB. Her death certicate is registered w/ the NL Civil Registration Return of Deaths-TB Region listed as Catherine John. William Duggan informed me through personal communication that she was the first wife of Billy John. So yeh it does seem that the Hollets are somehow connected to the Johns & Hawes, and it is known that the Hollets are strongly connected to the Pecks. The language in question of questionable origin as spoken by Old Johnnie Martin, Pecks and Hollets may have been a trade language or pidgin incorporating features of French(Basque), NL Mc and Mont-Nask. Regarding the Moulton thread IDK much about the Moultons. Interestingly, the Mc family name Martin is oftentimes pronounced as Maltin; cf. Moulton family name spelt alternatively as Mooton suggesting perhaps a French origin. The evidence seems to suggest that the Martin and Algoumatinuck families listed in the Newman Little Bay Ledger (1790-1791) descend from two different ethnic sources: the former from Lab Mont-Nask (probably Innu-aimun or French Martin) and the latter NS Mc Algoumatinuck w/ a truncation from (Algou)ma(r)tin(uck). The point is that a lot of NL Mc hunters listed in the 1790 ledger do not show up in later parish registers so it begs the question: what happened to them? It is quite plausible that some of these hunters migrated eastward into the Black River-Piper’s Hole-Sandy Harbour River watershed areas mixing w/ local Anglo-Irish kim groups there. So the domain of islands of Upper PB and the intertidal-estuarine watersheds of PHR would have made an ideal sanctuary for NL Mc-Mont extended kin groups. Note also the NL Numerical Census Returns (1869-84) for Burin & PB which lists several Indians (male head of households) residing at Lamaline, Mortier Bay and Black Duck Brook (Rattling Brook, Indian Cove, PHR)-the latter undoubtedly John Barrington. So there were definitely Mc families residing at Western PB and the Domain of PB Islands. Hope this helps.

  15. Hi Pikeman/PipersHoleman,

    Thank you for that information. I was wondering if you would be able to tell me any contact information for these researchers and/or company who which conducted the DNA test so I could get in contact with them to hopefully aid in their research or submit my own DNA.

    Also, your mother’s gedmatch kit is listed as private so I am unable to compare to any of my kits or view any matches.

    Thanks Again,


    1. Hi Devon, unfortunately I cannot share that information at present. As for my mother’s GedMatch atDNA admixture heritage estimates or BGEOs (Biogeographic Ethnic Origin) percentages are all posted on Newfoundland Grand Banks-nothing to hide there, it’s all out in the open public domain!

  16. Hi Devon, this will probably be a final note on comparative genetic genealogy as offered through commercial genetic genealogy testing companies such as FTDNA, AncestryDNA,…and various non-affiliated on-line testing algorithmic diagnostics tools such as Davidski’s GedMatch. The next step in the evolution of answering the big questions of biogeographic ethnic origins for various current or extant NL-Lab FN-Inuit groups and how that correlates with ancient migration and population history of aDNA samples, the interested reader will have to be patient and await the the affordable accessibility of whole genome sequencing to the general public. This service is now available to medical and research facilities at a costly price, but give it 7-10 years and testing companies like FTDNA will be incorporating these technologies at an affordable rate to the general public consumer. What we see now w/ FTDNA and raw data file transfers to DNA Land (2-3 million bp imputations) and Gedmatch (app. 100,000-200,000 SNPs) are just touching the surface of the underlying complexity. Cutting edge frontier advances in nanopore whole genome technology, opening up the role of nonfunctional “junk” DNA in the human genome and how this reveals secrets in ancient phylogeographic-poplulation genetics and DNA supercomputers (not binary code 1 0) will make current services offered by genetic genealogy testing companies look almost obsolete or antiquated. It will be like comparing arithmetic to Ramanujan modular functions, or basic Euclidean Geometry to Riemannian Non-Euclidean Geometry.

    Here is a link for whole genome sequencing services offered by Illumina just to give you an idea of whats out there in advanced whole genome sequencing:

    Personally, I take a middle path non-egoic or non-attachment approach to the current and upcoming aDNA studies and how the test results of such interdisciplinary research studies will impact comparative genetic genealogy-family history. My perspective with regard to answering the question of either Lab Innnuat (Mont) or even Beo (Red Indian) ancestry in the PHR group on having no invested interests or suspected ulterior motives as tabled by critics can be summarized by the Sanskrit saying: karma-phala-tyaga “renunciation of the fruits of action” and from that comes moksha “freedom that comes from renunciation”. I personally don’t take an affirmative one-sided position for or against Red Indian or Mountaineer for the PHR group. Its not that I’m apathetic, indifferent or uncompassionate but I have no active vested interests in the outcome of the upcoming test results. And even if there was a proven connection in the distant future through whole genome testing that would show 1-1.5% deep shared common ancestry with the now extinct RI I would as previously stated sign a legal declaration of relinquishment releasing myself of any financial reward or profit from the research. So if there ever was a movie-documentary or book release in the near future neither I nor anyone in my family could ever gain financially from the profits or proceeds. Every red cent would go back to humanitarian and philanthropic charity as donations. No one can ever accuse me of being in this research for profit or fame-the allegations are unfounded and void. The research program was and is guided by pure enlightenment or educational informative purposes of answering the research questions. So yeh I invoke karma-phala-tyaga.

  17. Hi Devon if this interests you or helps in your genetic genealogy investigative research here is my GedMatch kit number: A492445

    I don’t know what it will prove or show if anything for any link between any of my paternal ancestors emanating from Trinity, TB North and PHR-BR, PB. The suspected mixed blood WE-NA ancestor (in all probability a Mountaineer Indian) was born ca. 1795-1805 (being the mother of my paternal great-great-grandfather) so an estimated split from any common ancestor or MRCA still goes back to app. 220 years or 7-8 Gens. I seriously doubt that the GedMatch admixture heritage tests or chromosomal sharing diagnostics will show much of anything given the time depth of divergence or split from a putative NA ancestor. Ultimately, we are looking at a biogeographic ethnic origin or admixture heritage estimate of app. 1,0-1.5% NA-Siberian (Circumpolar Beringian or Inuit) for both myself and my biological mother. Coincidentally, East Asian & Siberian consistently shows up in my Gedmatch admixture heritage estimates in the order of 1.0-2.0% (and sometimes higher), but not for my mother which is interesting because a higher East Asian or NESiberian count should show for a suspected Inuit ancestor. Based on my years of conducting ethnohistoric, ethnographic, archival family history-genealogy, and community-family history oral traditions I am 99.99% certain that neither of my 2 uniparental NA-Inuit ancestors-one emanating from Brigus, CBN (from Labrador) and the other from Piper’s Hole watershed-were of NL Mc ancestry, but mixed Inuit-Innuat (Mont) on my mother’s side, and mixed WE-NA on my father’s side. Not much more to say about these extended kin groups as it relates to NA-Siberian ancestry beyond this. However, it would be interesting to see what you come up with in your research findings. Hope this helps!

  18. Hi there Devon as promised here is the GEDMatch kit number: A397569

    I hope this helps in investigative research. Just a few brief notes on my mother’s test results. While DNA Tribes shows a higher Northern Amerindian and lower Siberian component than mine, some of the Gedmatch test results show the opposite for my kit; ie., higher Amerindian (or Karitiana) percentage. Either way GedMatch shows a lower limit range of app. 1-3% NA-Siberian and an upper limit range of app. 3-5% NA-Siberian for both myself and my mother. IDK if GedMatch will show anything between your NA ancestor (NL Mc Joe/Joseph or perhaps earlier Sylvester) and my mom’s ancestor a Lab Inuit or mixed Inuit-Innuat-Innuts (Mont-Nask). Yeh just run it through the algoritmic calculators and see what filters out. I would be very surprised if any anything showed up for a distant link between the Joes and perhaps the Mountane (Mountain or Montagnais) family of Brigus-Cupids, CBN going back app. 200 plus years (ca. pre-1819) .

    Best wishes.

  19. While not directly related to NL Mc aDNA studies, here is a link on an article abstract relating to an interesting ancient study on MA (Maritime Archaic Indian), Paleoeskimo, & Beothuk mtDNA, first posted on-line on Oct 12, 2017:

    Duggan, A. et al. (2017). Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada. Current Biology


    The results of this study seem to suggest that the 19 Beo mtDNA samples tested are not directly or closely related to MAI samples. With regard to the possibility of some atDNA surviving in contemporaneous NL human populations, both FN/NA and WE, the interdisciplinary research team cautiously speculates on the possibility as follows:

    “Although it remains possible that Beothuk traces of ancestry persist in contemporary residents of NL, including members of the Innu, Mi’kmaq, and European communities, it is generally accepted that the Beothuk became culturally extinct with the death of Shanawdithit [13, 14, 15]”

    Either way this is an interesting research finding which adds to the wealth of research data on the pre-contact and early contact ancient human settlement and migration history of NL, and opens the way for continued ongoing full or whole genome atDNA testing, as alluded to in the following Globe & Mail newspaper article commentary:

    “That leaves open the question of who the Beothuk were related to, said Dr. Grimes, a question that will likely only be answered with a far more detailed and costly study of chromosomal DNA from the Beothuk and other First Nations groups with living descendants in the region. Such a larger study could have implications for future land claims and for the overall understanding of the island’s pre-European history.”


    As a postscript my mother (a direct matrilineal descendant of the Bow patriline of Cupids, CBN-Trinity, TBNorth, and I have both agreed to give a DNA sample for testing to compare it w/ NL Mc, Lab Innuat (Mont-Nask), Lab Inuit, and Beo to determine if any residual atDNA mutation markers can be connected to any existing FN/NA or Inuit group. Although the calculated biogeographic ethnic origin percentages are relatively low in the range of app. 1.1-1.2% of app. 700,000 tested SNPs in the targeted array or an estimated 7,000-8,000 SNPs, have survived in direct living descendants so it was not all lost. Furthermore, it is quite possible that the estimated biogeographic ethnic origin percentages are substantially underestimated given the nonexistence of authentic Lab Innuat, Lab Inuit and NL Mc or Beo samples in the existing databases of commercial genetic genealogy testing companies.
    In all probability my mother’s NA-Inuit atDNA count is more in the order of app. 1.0-3.0%, and that of Fanny Bowe app. 12.5% (or a 3 rd Gen or great-grandchild direct descendant of a mixed Indian-Inuit woman from Lab). This should answer the question once an for all as to which group the Brigus-Cupids, CBN “Indians” are closest related to. My “gut instinct” tells me that the so called “Indians” as attested in the parish registers and missionary journal entries (1814-) for Brigus-Cupids, CBN were Lab Inuit on the maternal side, and in all probability either Lab Mont-Nask or even NL Mc-Beo on the paternal line.

    So where do I think that the Indian or Inuit connection comes from on the Bowe side. In all probability it derives from the mother of William Bowe Sr. (b. ca. 1835-40) a mixed Indian-Inuit female ancestor (b. ca. 1819) who served as a servant in the household of the Bowe family, and may have had an extramarital affair, whether consensual or non-consensual with her master or lord while residing in the household leaving an illegitimate child. The male child namely William Bowe of mixed WE-NA-Inuit ancestry would have the WE YDNA of his father and the NA-Inuit mtDNA of his mother. In all proability given that this was a one time non-paternal event with only illegitimate child being born from such and issuance, the NA mtDNA signature would not have been passed onto to his son namely George Bowe, but effectively died out with only the atDNA signature surviving in 6-7 Gen direct living descendants. At present I would not conclusively rule out either a Mc or even Beo male ancestor as the founding paternal ancestor of the Lab Indian group brought down from Lab to Brigus-Cupids, CBN on a schooner in 1819.

    1. Hi Pipersholeman,

      Where did you and your mother get your dna tested and permission to have it tested against the other groups? I would love to do that.

      1. As of present a genetics laboratory outside NL has contacted the family with an interest in undetarking a comparative genetic genealogy test and follow-up research study-however, that laboratory is NOT affiliated with either MUN Genetics or McMaster University Ancient DNA Center, so no connection whatosever with the ongoing NL Mc or Beothuk DNA studies. We have both consented to participate in this comparative DNA study if and when it is initiated. However, please note in addition to signing confidentiality or non-disclosure agreements we both requested that the atDNA test results not be used for any legal or ethnopolitical purposes such as application for official government recognition or propietary rights for book-manuscript publication. In addition, we both have requested to sign a declaration of relinquishment to hereditary rights if and/or when any rare or unknown Beo mutation marakers are to be found, so that no living or future descendants having these rare markers can come forward and invoke or appeal any distant Beo ancestry or any financial rewards or profits that may ensue thereof as resulting from such a discovery. We are neither interested in ethnopolitics, land claims agreements, financial compensation, legal recognition, ….only knowing the answer the for the sake of knowing the answer-so informational purposes only, and for reconciliation and healing given the documented 3 Gens of inter-and-intrafamilial rape that occurred among female descendants from this group who displayed more stereotypical NA/FN-Inuit features. Skeptics and/or critics can put any fears or suspicions to rest with even thinking the possibility-however remotely fanciful-of a distant Beo connection for this group. All evidence suggests Lab Inuit on the maternal side and perhaps Lab Innuat (Mont) or Naskapi (Innuts) on the paternal side, for this unknown uniparental ancestor b. ca. 1819, with a very faint possibility of NL Red Indian or even NL Mc, but I highly doubt the latter given the reconstructed evidence. With regard to answering the question on the identity of who the Brigus-Cupids extended kin group were interested ethnopolitical parties here in NL have expressed an attitude of complacency, apathy or indifference, perhaps because they are not legally or officially recognized-essentially research groups and genetics laboratory faculty members here in NL are just not interested in this group despite the ethnohistoric-ethnographic, parish register, family-community oral traditions, family photographs and now atDNA test results. It is my prediction that when the reconstructed whole genomes of the 19 Beo samples, and more samples come on line for Lab Inuit and Innuat, the estimated atDNA biogeographic ethnic origin percentages of my mother are more like 1-3% (lower limit)-3-5% (upper limit) NA, and not the low 1.2% as calculated by DNA Tribes. I am still searching for my mother’s GedMatch kit number and when I get it because GedMatch is down I will definitely share it with you so you can conduct comparative chromosome painting and sharing-sound good. I don’t know if it will show much though given the separation of app. 200 years from a possible shared ancestor in Labrador. As a postscript, the Trinity, TBNorth-Cupids-Brigus, CBN Bowe patriline, of Irish origin, is not related in any way to the NL-NB-NS (Le)Bow(e) one. As a final note, a DNA sample was submitted to MUN Genetics for a SNP genome analysis from a member of the THr-PHR Pick patriline for a rare medical condition in 2010, but MUN Genetics was only interested in holding the sample for 20 years in the vent that circumstances and funding would avail to undertake such a study-but once again this rare atDNA dominant condition has absolutely nothing to do w/ either extinct or extant NA-FN groups-it is a WE (West Eurasian, or Western European) epiphenomenon! I hope this answers your query, and when I find the GedMatch kit number I will share it here online for your informational research oaky. Warm and sincere wishes.


  20. Hi once again PipersHoleMan,
    Sorry it took so long to get back to you. I too agree it is time now to recognize the early Mi’kmaq families that lived in the area, and get the same recognition other communities and areas have gotten.

    That lady whom you met in Manuels, CBS is actually my Aunt Ellen. She’s a gg granddaughter of Elizabeth (Saunders) Hynes. She’s very knowledgeable about some of the early history of my family. Shd does look very native in appearance. That film that you mentioned was called “Finding Mary March” and was completed a few decades ago and she played one of Mary’s relatives.

    I have not seen a connection between the Barrington’s and the Branton’s, but would be interesting to dive into further. Berntim looks however to be a direct reference to Barrington. It could also be said that the old Bernard surname (Piktueruel) could have been passed down as Pico (Peaco/Picco) as well as your Pike/Pecks.

    Took a look at your DNA matches from FTDNA, I know quite a few of them. I don’t believe most of them are Mi’kmaq connections to you. Ms. Darrigan has strong connections to Conception Bay through her Sheppard line, so that is her probable connection to you. The rest, Park, Brake, Jesso, Hawkins, Perrier all descend from families out of Conception Bay whom immigrated to the West Coast. All of them are also connected to my Mi’kmaq ancestor Elizabeth Saunders who is a maternal relative of their Elizabeth (Joe) Blanchard. The Wheelers, Parks etc. are also connected but has not been fully determined the extent of their connection, but they all came from the Burin Peninsula as shown in the 1838/1839 list of inhabitants of the Bay of Islands.

    From reading your comments, I realized whom I was talking to you. I have been trying to contact you for years regarding your research on the Piper’s Hole area. Everyone knows you online as Pikeman, especially due to your comments on Ancestry & NGB. Glad to finally be able to contact you.

    I recently came across a Court Record from 1811 in Fortune Bay which states the following (Still some words to be transcribed correctly):
    “PAGE 95:
    June 6th 1811:
    Reached Harbor Mille, an old woman there in bad health, deteriorating state.
    June 7th 1811:
    Reached Bottom of Bay. Choice situation indeed fit for every occupation or business of island. Either fishing, building, rearing cattle. Cultivation is inhabited by 6 or 7 planters, family’s of young children. The grand object of contention is a slope of land formed by waves about ½ mile long or 3/4 and about 60 or 70 yards broad. Several bonds? islands is within, out of the reach of waves. The slope formed in by former settlers.
    PAGE 96:
    Providing ?? supplies ?? for perhaps 100 heard of cattle if property by ?? and inland. The men in single hand skiffs fish at times within call from their houses. Trout in abundance of the size of small salmon at a harbor about two miles north side. Grand Le Pier ?? may be found any time in summer. Mikmaks visiting during intervals perhaps of several years for beaver? in summer and venison in winter when droves from ?? the hundreds came in from w?? ?? and across island.
    Upon a formal inquiry into the facts or occurrences and disturbances that have arisen some complaints of and decided upon on board of H.M. ships and Magistrate in Navy also myself at 2 or 3 different times. The intolerable? Malice and rooted revenge between the two parties, one Irish and the other English, there seems but one way putting an end to/ if after all ??/ vig? An order for all parties to pull down their ?? and lay the whole ship ?? for their cattle ?? in ??. The land in which they have built their houses is such level ground and affords plenty of room
    PAGE 97:
    to clear sufficient to provide grass or hay to feed on during winter.
    Each party is endeavoured for ?? by any ?? the number and the place very inviting to new beginners. A Young man Elijah? Pye made ap ?? for a spot asking him for the girl Margaret Doyle to be his wife this fall/. Reply if the girl is willing you may know this fall by inquiring further. Increase of number w?? also increase number of claims to grass cattle on the same spot. Some fatal ?? may? ensue inevitably ?? ?? a murder or two in the end. Two or three conflicts of late will prove the truth of remarks.
    June 9 1811 Sunday:
    Appearing Michael McGraw, Michael Gorman, a man and woman ??. 2 men, crew of ?? ??. ?? flew about and departure second most prudent – reached Cape Millier [Mille] near Bay de John following herring and on
    11th got to Belleoram gave notice of surrogate court to be held on Monday 17th following.
    June 13 1811:
    Went by land to St. Jacques, back same day.
    June 16 1811:
    Performed? Service? on this harbour read acts of parliament ?? to swearing, drunkenness, proclamations inclosing? lands, harmony and friendship between Native Indians, Mikmaks and Nflanders europeans? – following ??”

    I’m working with a few other researchers to figure out exactly where the writer says the Mikmaks (Mi’kmaq) came in from as it’s very difficult to read. This provides more evidence of the Mi’kmaq presence in Fortune Bay especially. For reference “Bottom of Bay” is the old name for Terrenceville. I am also conducting extensive DNA testing for several Mi’kmaq descended families and am currently awaiting 7 DNA tests to come back in the next couple weeks with hopes for many more to be done. When the results come back, maybe we could use that information in conjunction with the above Court record to create a Part 2 of this article. Lots to find out yet!!

    1. Hi Devon, thank you for your reply and sharing of detailed information on the topic-I enjoy reading all your commentaries. Regarding your interest and passion in seeking and eventually obtaining some form of recognition for the NL Mc families from the Terrenceville area of FB it looks like you are already well under way to accomplishing that task in the near future. I commend you for your hard work in this area of raising public awareness through conducting primary and secondary archival, fieldwork and genetic genealogy research. I look forward to reading a research paper, book or website on the area of study published under your name.

      Regarding the 3-5 cousin matches through FTDNA between some NL Mc from BOI area and my patriline I am quite certain that the AIM cm similarities reflect IBC, and not IBD; consequently it may have nothing do with sharing a common remote common uniparental ancestor going back 6-7 Gens. If it is the latter, namely IBD (Identical By Descent), then in all probability the shared uniparental ancestor (my parental great-great-grandfather’s mother) was probably of French descent or perhaps even part-French Indian. In addition to the Conception Bay Area as a source or epicentre for Anglo-Irish ethnic diffusion for the BOI families referenced, I would not categorically rule out French or Acadian as a possible source to explain the discrepancy in converging atDNA test results. This is a parsimonious explanation given the many French ancestral family names that also show up for these BOI families, and the possibility that many NS Mc families that emigrated to NL ca. 1790-1810 were already part or mixed French-so it may be next to impossible at present given current limitations in commercial atDNA genetic genealogy to filter out French from Anglo-Irish. As I mentioned before, as per community-family and reconstructed family history evidence, there is a distant French connection for the Pick/Peck patriline with connections emanating from Black River-Pipers Hole. Whether this comes from the paternal side namely Geo Peck, with connections to Trinity, TB North or the maternal side given name and family name unknown, cannot be determined. According to what Johnnie Martin told us at least, the Picks were down in that area going way back to ca. 1670, and in all likelihood fought in Father Baudoins War (1696-7) as regular troops in the French Army. All we know is at that “they were there with the French” and “they fought against the English”. There are also old family stories about how this desertion event in PB ties into the so called burn event at Stock Cove, TB but that is another story that is censored at present and will not see the light of day in the public domain for quite some time to come.

      If I were a betting man I would have to say that the Pick/Peck patriline descends from a naturalized Englishman who served as an indentured servant under Thomas Pitt (later Pick,…) of Plaisance, PB. It is known that he employed Basques, Bretons and even Africans all of whom fought in Dibervilles Campaign-alongside Abenaki and Mc scouts-guides-auxiliary militia. So it is quite possible that one of the deserters under the employ of Thomas Pick/Peck changed their family name upon desertion to that of their master following the desertion event so as to avoid detection. It is quite possible that this Frenchman and several others who defected ca. 1713 after the French were forced to abandon PB took refuge among the resident or in situ NL Mc and/or Abenaki from the Conne River, FB-Pipers Hole, PB areas-it definitely makes sense as there were no marriageable French or European females partners left in the area after the French pulled out, but such an intermarriage event goes way back app. 300 years or 12 Gens. I am 99.99 % certain that our patriline has nothing to do with Pekitualuet or Pikteuaruel, but I would not rule it out for the Pic(c)o one. I am definitely certain that our patriline is connected to the Thomas Pick one of Plaisance, whose son coincidentally Pierre Pick has associations with the NL Mc Helie/Huri patriline of Bonne Baie and indirectly to Jean Martin (montannier).

      For what it’s worth my DNA Tribes biogeographic ethnic origin percentage shows app. 1.1 % combined NA-Siberian which is very close to all the Gedmatch tests which show an app. range of 1.0-1.5% (lower limit) to 1.0-3.0%-so by inductive reasoning my fathers estimated count would be something like 1.0-1.2%. Unlike FTDNA which uses only Karitiana, Surui and Pima-Papago as reference populations, DNA Tribes uses many NA reference populations such as Anishanabeg & Plains Cree, but no East Cree, Mont-Nask,…So there is a small residual trace of NA markers but it’s not worth talking about really as it goes way back, 7-8 Gens or 200 years for both uniparental ancestors on both sides. The connection was there but succumbed to wash out events through 6-7 Gens of intermarriage with Anglo-Irish settlers. The 1811 record looks very interesting thank you for sharing that information. Keep up the excellent work.

      1. I would like to say that after conducting app. 20 years of independent ethnohistoric archival and ethnographic fieldwork that I am convinced now that both of my uniparental ancestors were not of NL Mc background, but of Lab Inuit and Innuat (Mont-Nask) descentvgoing back to ca. 1795-1805. I am absolutely convinced that the NL Mc connection on my father’s side comes from cultural borrowing or diffusion resulting from contact through friendship and/or hunting partnership with NL Mc kin groups emanating from Conne River, FB while seasonally residing in the Black River-Pipers Hole watershed area and has absolutely nothing to do with gene flow between both extended groups. The place names John Pike’s Mash and Pike Pond located north of the modern community of Swift Current, and west of Indian Pond & Frenchman’s Pond, suggest that this patriline principally inhabited the Black River Pond & Black River Mountains area. This hunting domain is located outside or peripheral to the principal one of John Barrington & Louis John located on th eastern side of the Tolt in the Piper’s Hole watershed. As for the place name Pike Place located at Brown’s Island, Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole River, that toponym was remembered only by Mark Vaters of Swift Current, a hunting partner of Thos. Barrington, who was told the name before Thos. passed away. Thos. pointed out the area of residence and associated place name while he was hunting with M. Voters and said “you see that place over there, that’s called Pike Place, that’s where the Pikes lived”. It’s hard to know whether the name derives from the wife of Mary Harriett Pick/Peck who supposedly married a John Martin Sr. for which reconstructed circumstantial and oral community evidence suggests may have emanated from Conne River, or whether it takes its name from an earlier settlement pattern going back to ca. 1817-22 when th Picks starting making inroads back into the area through a backmigration.

        Although I am not a FN/NA person of NL Mc descent I have a lot of respect for the old traditional lifestyle of living off the land. I remember as a young man up until 13 years of age spearing eels at night by torch with my father and grandfather. My grandfather’s eel spear was lent out around 1986 to a community friend and fishing partner but was never returned. I also remember hearing stories from my father about Old Johnnie Martin and Old John Pike spearing eels out at Eel Brook and putting their eel pots out at John Pike’s Path. I also remember stories from my father about how he could remember as a young boy seeing them making eel skin snowshoes or pattes racquettes. My poor father also drew sketches of these snowshoes and the homemade prospector tents that they lived in while they hunted and trapped at Rantem and Pipers Hole. He insisted that it was constructed from flower bags sewn together and soaked in linseed oil with a built-in floor, tarp cover and grommets and ropes as well as a homemade wood stove. They carried it in a homemade bundle of same material with a tumpline and shoulder carrying straps. A photograph of a similar tent is published in Doug Jackson’s book On the Country showing Steven John and the Jeddores, and is very similar in design to he Innu canvas tent and I suspect that it was also used by telegraph line repairmen of NL Mc and Anglo-Irish descent. My father and his brother used the tent last hunting caribou at Grey River in the early 70s, and it was never seen again after it was lent out to a family friend shortly after. Old John Pike was remembered by family and friends as living in this tent alone for 2-3 months at a time while he went hunting-trapping up Pipers Hole River. We were also told growing up “Old John Pike grew up with th Indians in Piper’s Hole” and “the Pikes came from Pipers Hole”. My father remembered some of the words from the old language that Johnnie Martin spoke and I can attest that is was definitely NL Mc according to vocabulary or word lists but according to sound or cadence with a residual influence from some other language like Innu-aimun. Other details on this way of life can be found in NL Grand Banks Message Board.

        With regard to physical features older members of my family noted the similarities in facial features between older members of both the Barringtons and Pikes. Some of these similarities also extended to mannerisms, expressions, and ways of talking-walking, so somewhere along the way there was conditioned learning through close contact. Older members of the community insisted that “you guys are all tangled up but we don’t know how”. Alphonse also reiterated this remote shared ancestry in looking at family photographs of my distant ancestors when he said “no problem to tell that we’re related”, “looks like me from here down” pointing to a family photograph of my paternal great-grandfather. All of these personal subjective opinions or impressions on shared similarities in features aside, which are open to interpretation and debate, they may be nothing more than accidental convergence or chance resemblance and without solid DNA evidence to back it up it may never be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. Until then such evidence is tantamount to anecdotal hearsay or reconstructed circumstantial evidence orbiting on the fring of conjectural speculation. I suspect however that there is grain of truth to it but the suspected divergence from the shared MRCA goes back further than predicted to ca. 1795-1805. So the DNA evidence like the surviving material culture and language is all but lost with only a small residual trace.

        With regard to physical features the old Pick/Peck family members did not have a stereotypical NA/FN physical type or physiognomy, but in the flesh a West Mediterranean, SW Asian or SE European physical type. The closest resemblance of my paternal grandfather was with Armenians like the Kevorkian patriline, which was definitely not NA/FN but Mediterranean Caucasoid of Armenoid type. Older paternal uncles also have a Southern European or Mediterranean type such as that attested in the Pacino and DeNiro patriline. The Kafka patriline of Ashkenazic origin in Eastern Europe also approximates it closely. Coincidentally, my FTDNA My Origins shows 2.0% West Middle East, 2.0% SE Europe and 5.0% East Europe.

        To summarize, I have not conducted archival research since 2009 and have no intentions of furthering this research programme in th near or foreseeable future. Until whole genome sequencing comes online to the masses at an affordable costs investment in future atDNA testing is on hold. As per DNATribes and GEDMatch testing the range of NA/Siberian is somewhere in the order of 1.0-1.5, and with future testing of Quebec North Shore & Lab Mont-Nask samples the results may jump up as high as 1.5-3.0% but that will be it. Essentially, this research resulting from the recent atDNA testing ends app. 20 years of independent archival and fieldwork research. My only wish is that current atDNA testing was made available 20 years ago. If it were I would have not gone down this road of private research. I learned my lessons here and I have found peace and closure with he final test results. This chapter in my life is now officially over. The ball is now in the court of Swift Current community residents and Barrington & John family descendants to someday effect and finalize som wort of land protection, historic commemorations programmes and ecotourism guiding business. I don mye

        1. Please note that the last sentence “I don mye… got cut off n should read I done my part and my work here is done. I have nothing to say on the topic anymore, to do so would border on obsessive repitition or redundancy. The only thing to do is to wait for future testing of Lab Innuat DNA and perhaps NL RI ancient DNA samples. I would be very happy if anyone in NL or elsewhere can prove descent through atDNA, mtDNA or YDNA, whether to NL Mc, Innu, or even as controversial and debatable as it sounds NL RI. But as it stands right now the blood quantums or predicted biogeographic ethnic origin percentages for my family on both sides are so low as to not warrant or justify application for official DIAND recognition or status. It’s just enough there to say that the connection existed going back 7-8 Gens from me and 6-7 Gens for my parents, but essentially it died our through wash out events of intermarriage. Whole genome sequencing however will be able to detect the rare AIMs and mutation markers, but the range of NA ancestry will still rise only by a few fraction points or perhaps 1.0-1.5 x the current levels. Similarly my patriline relinquished all title to both hereditary and usufructury rights to land and resources in the Pipers Hole watershed area upon emigration in 1934-so we have no rights there anymore. For educational and public awareness purposes, it would be nice to see more archaeological surveys in the area of Upper PB to put the ancient human migration-settlement history into spatio-temporal sequence, namely radiocarbon dating of archaeological sites to determine date of occupation and by what group. I wish you th best in your research Devon and I hope to someday see a publication under your name in the public domain. Thank you for your time and consideration, but I really don’t have anything left to say. Like Laura Barrington said when my uncle and I met them in Badger “it’s a different breed altogether”. I now know that I am not NL Mc or even part NL Mc. My 2 NA/Inuit ancestors emanate from Labrador and are in all likelihood were either Innu or mixed Inuit-Innuat going way back to 1790-1805, but definitely not NL Mc. Although there is some evidence for a cultural and linguistic connection to NL Mc from Pipers Hole this connection resulted from hunting partnerships and friendship without gene flow events resulting from intermarriage. I would like to say that I have nothing but respect for NL Mc language, culture and identity, but they are not my people. I would not be living in truth if I were to say otherwise. I believe that the evidence I presented in the public domain through online and paper publications backs this observation up. Right now there is not one shred or piece of evidence that links my paternal and maternal ancestral lines to any NL Mc families or communities. At the same time I really think that it is important to keep this information online pertaining to the Bowe patriline of Brigus-Cupids, CBN and the Pick/Peck one of Pipers Hole, PB so that other researchers may not be misled into thinking that this connection may have been NL Mc. Sometimes a cultural or linguistic connection does not imply a one-to-one mapping with genetics or family history/genealogy. Thank you for your time Dorothy and Devon. I appreciate the opportunity to post a subset of my research here. Best and warmest wishes.

        2. Thanks, PipersHoleMan, I have enjoyed following your and Devon’s discussion. You’ve provided a wealth of information and interesting points to think about. All the best to you and, again, thanks.

    2. Hi Devon this will be one of my last comments on the topic, as there is not much left to say other than what has been already said. As for my atDNA test results from AncestryDNA & FTDNA I have some doubts and uncertainties about using current, direct-to-consumer commercial genetic genealogy testing as an accurate testing tool to supplement a paper trail genealogy without any written archival records. As an example, my FTDNA results show many 3-4 cousin matches to Scandinavians from Norway & Sweden with all Scandinavian ancestral family names. I contacted some of these test participant matches and all of them have lived in Norway & Sweden since time immemorial with no immigration sources from outside the country. This phenomenon seems to reflect ancient IBD (Identical By Descent) where blocks or segments of atDNA is passed down through reshuffling. I suspect that the 11-12% Scandinavian biogeographic ethnic origin count that shows up on my webpage reflects ancient Jutish-Viking ancestry from Eastern England and/or Norman ancestry and consequently has nothing to do with recent shared common ancestry such as having a Scandinavian great-grandparent. The same argument goes for my 3-4 cousin matches with Quebec North Shore French Canadian participants-but once again nothing in the paper trail to substantiate or corroborate any shared recent or remote ancestry with French Canadians other than reconstructed circumstantial evidence and oral community-family history. I think that current 700,000 SNP testing is relatively accurate in determining shared ancestry within 3-4 Gens but after that it gets very tricky and should be supplemented with other archival and filedwork research due to the possibility of IBC or false negative phenomena. With regard to any suspected shared remote ancestry between th Pick/Peck patriline and th Barrington one of Black River-Pipers Hole I suspect that if it ever existed it goes back to the mother of my paternal great-great-grandfather’s mother and the mother of John Barrington’s mother. So it is quite possible that my paternal great-great-grandmother’s mother and John Barrington’s mother may have been sisters or even half sisters. Either way the genetic distance is in the range of 7-8 Gens from me or 6-7 Gens from my biological father so any shared atDNA will be in the range of app. 0.5-1.5 %, which is very low indeed and without whole genome sequencing which detects AIMs in the range of 8-9 Gens and paper trail archival records to back up the rare mutation markers, such speculation may be nothing more than mere conjecture. Assuming that direct living descendants of both groups share a rare mutation marker, all that such testing will prove is that so and so has a rare or unattested marker suggesting that so and so shares a common ancestor going way back, but other than identifying the name of that remote ghost ancestor and the genetic distance whole chronological calculation it may be next to impossible to prove or disambiguate without reasonable doubt. Coincidentally, I have two matches with Barringtons one a 3-4 cousin match with a Merrick from NS through FTDNA where the ancestral family names are Barron, Barrington (Cape Breton, NS) & Hawco (NL, Can) and A. Barrington (NL, Can) through AncestryDNA. I suspect that neither match has anything to do with the Barringtons from Black River-Pipers Hole. The former reflects a shared Hawco ancestor and the latter may in all probability reflect an Irish Barrington group resident in the St. John’s area that has nothing to do with the Upper PB one. I think that somewhere along the way going way back say 6-7 Gens from my father it is quite possible that the Barringtons and Picks/Pecks are somehow related but once again this goes back to ca. 1790-1805 which is a very long time ago. This wouldn’t be that far fetched given the similarities in soft tissue craniofacial features between members of both groups going back 3 Gens as verified by older living descendants of both patriline. Until whole genome sequencing which covers all 10,000,000 SNPS plus also some non-functional junk DNA comes onboard and is made available to th general public through direct-to-consumer commercial genetic genealogy testing or vendor services at an affordable cost say in the next 7-10 years, many of these questions relating tomote shared ancestry will remain unanswered. The primary research on archival genealogy and ethnohistory for the Pipers Hole watershed area is now complete, with only further archaeological surveying of the area pending-I really don’t know what future atDNA testing will prove given the predicted genetic distances. I will post a commentary on archaeological surveying to finish off the discussion in the coming 1-2 weeks. There’s really not much left to say on the topic other than to wait and see what comes to light by other researchers’ accidental archival research findings.

      As a postscript, I think a clearer picture is now emerging as to the identity of the Brigus-Cupids, CBN group which some private researchers claimed may have been NL Mc. I am quite confident that this group in question was of mixed Inuit or Montagnais-Inuit origin and has nothing to do with NL Mc. I do know that the grandfather Joe Bussey of my mothers grandmother Fanny Bowe died on a schooner in Labrador. In addition members of the Rowe family who married into the Bowe patriline, namely those related to the mother of Fanny Bowe’s father George Bowe were born in Labrador. From what I can see at least from looking at the photographs of my great-grandmother Fanny Bowe and remembering my grandmother the look is more like Northern People from Labrador-namely Lab Inuit or mixed Inuit-Naskapi. I think that a similar argument can be extended to the adoptive woman and her children taken in by Peter Brazil at Trinity 1817-22. If the oral testimony in the report is indeed correct she was not of NL Mc ancestry but more than likely of Lab Mont or even Mont-Beo! I suspect that her family name has nothing to do with Brazil or Basque and may suggest another family name of different origin.

      In the meantime, I look forward to reading your Part 2 write up on FB. Have fun this summer and please keep up the outstanding and exemplary research. Sincerely and best.

      1. Hi PipersHoleMan:
        I am Laura Barrington..
        Could you please tell me your name, for the life of me I am not sure of who you are..I am thinking you are D.P…not giving out your name..please message me and let me know would love to know who you are…Take care

        1. Hi Laura, for various obvious reasons I cannot release my full given and family name, but to those in academics and general lay readers following the blogs with due interest my identity is known among inner closed circles. To those who are following the blog commentaries here and elsewhere on this topic and other related topics, namley Beo aDNA, my writing style is internally consistent enough to infer or suggest one and the same writer-despite the multitude of other pseudonyms posted on other blogs. When the time is right in the next 2-3 years and I am ready I will reveal my identity-but not yet. IMHO Qalipu Mi’kmaq and the community of Swift Current, in partnership w/ Miawpukek, have enough available reconstructed ethnohistoric-ethnographic evidence as presented in the public domain to submit a proposal for funding to undertake the construction of a small NL Mc cultural interpretation center or museum in the distant future (say 7-10 years from present) at Indian Cove, PHR, PB when the political and socio-economic circumstances permit of course-ie., when the sand quarry has been exhausted or the permit for construction expires, whichever transpires first. Until that time I implore or beseech anonymity and confidentiality using an alias to protect the full or openly disclosed identity of both myself and my patriline, so as to avert the potential of an immanent smear campaign against either myself or my family.

          Satyam eva jayate na:nritam (Skt-Sanskrit) “Truth alone prevails, not unreality” (Mundaka Upanishad)-motto of India

          Ps. When the time is right I will implore a sweat lodge ceremony and smudging ceremony with leading designated medicine people to tell my story so as to initiate the final phase of the healing process and closure so as to implore reconciliation, atonement and compassionate forgiveness from any potentially offended persons or parties . Beyond that I really don’t have anything else to say on the matter of NL Mc ethnohistory as it relates to the reconstructed ancient settlement history of PHR, PB, as it doesn’t concern me anymore or it’s none of my business. Concerned and/or interested researchers can find any such information on NL Grand Banks (Message Board), NL Gen Web, and Newfoundland Ancestor.

          Namaste D…..P….

    3. Re. Mi’kmaq Grand LaPierre. Word beginning with “w” could be west and buddy is talking about droves of caribou coming in from the west.

    4. 1921 Grand Bay
      WELLS; John M Head Married 1885 Feb 35 Grand Bay
      WELLS; Sarah F Wife Married 1886 Sep 34 Fortune
      WELLS; Ernest M Son Single 1912 Aug 8 Grand Bay
      WELLS; Randel M Son Single 1914 Jan 6 Grand Bay
      WELLS; Lillian F Dau Single 1916 Jan 4 Grand Bay
      WELLS; John M Son Single 1919 Apr 1 Grand Bay
      PAULS?; Elizabeth M MIL Widow 1845 Jun 75 Fortune Bay

      1. Hi Phil, would be able to email me at devon.griffin(at)
        Replace the “(at)” with a @ symbol or maybe Dorothy could forward my email to you. :)

        I have been trying to contact you for many years as I have heard you a renowned researcher of Mi’kmaq families and would like to connect.

        Thanks in Advance
        Devon Griffin

      2. Mr. Jeddore, I just wanted to start by saying that I have a lot of respect for your NL Mc Jeddore (Geodol/We’jitu) extended kin group. I am sorry to hear about the passing of your father last year. I met him once many years ago at Miawpukek (along with several of his children) and can testify that he was a very intelligent, gentle soul with a wealth of knowledge on all matters of and pertaining to NL Mc ethnohistory, genealogy-family history and folklore. I also read and purchased his book which I gave as a gift to a close friend. The book was a very interesting read on his personal life and family-community history. One place name stood out that some fieldwork linguists overlooked in their analysis of NL Mc place names: Sa’nMartineweyspekiet “John Martin’s Lookout” -the origin of -spekiet is indeed interesting from an etymological perspective. If I recall some older literary sources also give sko’paq(a)n as an alternative word for lookout. IMHO I sincerely feel that this place name deserves inclusion in a redacted or updated research paper or lexicon edition of published NL Mc place names. The only question: how many place names of NL Mc origin have been lost to time-hence the importance of funding fieldwork elicitation and literary documentation to preserve this knowledge for future generations. As a postscript, I can humbly admit that there was a point in my past where I was partly fluent and almost literate in reading-writing Ktaqmkukewi’simk-a beautiful polysynthetic (non-configurational) language of the Eastern Algonquian stock. I had the fortune of learning under a leading authority and well respected scholar in the field who knew both Peter (Piye’l) & Matthew (Mattiyew) Jeddore-to appreciate NL Mc one has to hear it from the old school masters. Their “voice” has left a lasting impression on me and it it will never be forgotten. There are still times that I go off speaking NL Mc and I don’t even realize it LOL! Although its not my language I still appreciate it, love it and dearly respect it. Best wishes Pinip We’jitu Namaste.

  21. Pipers Hole Man ! A very interesting read as I have been searching my husbands family tree for past two years but has gotten nowhere near the wealth of information that i have discovered here on this blog. I did however come across the photograph of John Barrington and Big John Steven’s and sent the photograph to Alphonsus ‘s wife Laura whom I’m sure if Phonse had been alive at the time of this photograph would have tears of happiness for finally being able to put a face to John Barrington. My husbands name is Terence who’s grandfather was Alphonsus Barrington Sr and would love to know more regarding John Barrington and or other relations.

    1. Hi Bernice! My name is Yvette. John Barrington was my Great-Great Grandfather. a lot of you husbands relations live in Swift Current NL ( my hometown). My Great Grandfather and you Husbands Grandfather were brothers.

    2. Hi Bernice, just read this reply. My gut instinct told me when I first saw the photograph published in the book “Connecting the Continents” (2009) that the man standing at left was John Barrington. I had the privilege and honour of meeting Alphonsus Barrington Jr. over a period extending from 2003-2005. He was a gentle soul with a big heart, infectious smile and laughter. I first met him and his wife Laura during the summer of 2003 at Badger where they warmly welcomed me into their home. The first thing that he said to me was “you remind me of Duncan” and it was one of the last things that he said to me as we parted ways in the main entrance of the Bliss Murphy Centre, HSC Jan 2005. As we stood there together he looked into my eyes with intensity holding back tears, placed his hand on my shoulder and said “I will see you on the other side of the river my ole buddy”. I replied the same as we parted ways, and that was the last time I seen him in person. When I met him in 2003 he admitted that he didn’t know much about the genealogy and family history of his patriline. The only information that he had was a photocopy of the 1921 NL Census for Swift Current. He encouraged me to conduct more research on the topic, and was one of the driving forces that compelled me to seek out more information to answer some of the many unanswered questions. I found the death record for John Barrington during the summer of 2004 and shared it with him in Jan 2005. He wasn’t expecting Con (sic.) River as POB, but he slowly came about accepting the reality. The Barringtons at Garden Cove, Buchans and Badger didn’t know anything about my family, but spoke highly of Old Johnnie Martin (s/o John Martin Sr, & Mary Harriett Peck). Old Johnnie Martin “talked a lot about an old Indian from Swift Current” (John Barrington ). He also “worked on the (telegraph) line with Thos. Barrington from Rantem to Black River”. Like my late father said “poor old Johnnie went on and on talking about Pipers Hole and the Old Indians but everyone just laughed at him and thought he was crazy”. Johnnie knew a lot about Pipers Hole and the Mc-Mont families from there as he was allegedly born there and grew up his adult life living next to John Barrington and Mary Hawco. They were the only families living there then at Indian Cove, Brown’s Island, and were called the “crowd across the river”. Like Alphonse said “the only people that lived over there were Indians”-I would have to say based on my research that was indeed correct. Pipers Hole 100 years ago was not the same place as now as it was even more isolated and secluded. Poor Alphonse can remember visiting his grandmother and Duncan-the one thing that stood out him was the silence and tranquility of the place. He also noted that all of the clocks on the wall never worked, like he told me “it was like time had stood still”. It was a different world or a step back in time to quieter more peaceful times where simplicity and respect for nature and wildlife guided the flow and rhythm of time. Very few would understand this now, unless they witnessed it firsthand. My only regret was not knowing Alphonse Barrington more his presence is greatly missed and lamented. I hope this helps.

  22. Hi Devon, I will be away from my computer in the coming 3-4 days, as I have work-related commitments, so I will be unable to reply to your questions and queries until then. I strongly encourage you to continue with this research, so as to “carry on the torch” so to speak. Personally speaking, I will not be attempting to undertake a paper or manuscript publication on the research topic, as there are still too many unanswered questions and gaps in the data set to substantiate a full book release-plus pending DNA studies which may take ap. 3-5 years or more. More primary archival research is required with follow up peer-reviewed cross-checking of fieldwork and archival research. This is a big undertaking that I neither havre the time, enery nor resources to complete at my age, and with other commitments such as starting a family. Beyond legitimizing a book publication on the topic, I do think that there is enough evidence avalaible now in the public domain to justify a small NL Mc interpretive & commemorative plaque, perhaps at the gravel pit look-out point halfway up Mile Hill, near Toby Outlook, and overlooking Indian Cove, Brown’s Island, PHR. This community outreach programme would have to be a collaborative interdisciplinary endeavour involving all concerened and affected parties, such as community residents from Swift Current, PB & Conne River, FB, as well as NL Mc descendants of the Barrintgon & John extended kin patrilines from the local areas. The community history commemoration programmes of Deer Arm, Bonne Bay (BOI), near Norris Point, Boyd’s Cove, NDB & Frenchman’s Island, Sunnyside, TB South, serve as exemplary models to be emulated. I would like to see you one day complete this task and publish a book or minimally a mansuscript on the topic. In the meantime, I can only be a “silent supporter” offering my guidance and input as a consultant on any academic or research questions that you feel comfortable tabling. I will do my best to answer all your questions. I sincerely extend my blessings and support.

    In the meantime, as a postscript, I had an opportunity to meet on several occasions a woman residing at Manuels, CBS, who is a Saunders from Fortune Bay. She looks very much NA, having stereotypical Amerindian features. She didn’t know that the connection was NL Mc or NL RI. I think that she played an acting role in a movie a long time ago as a Beothuk, if I recall distinctly. She informed me that her older family members from FB told her that Piper’s Hole was once called “Chimney Cove” by FB resients, because travellers coming from FB overland on foot while descending Mile Hill from the high country could see the smoke from the tilt chimneys rising up from the valley below. I never heard of that place name before, but it makes sense-I was unable to corroborate that place name on published topographic maps, or those held in archival holdings.
    Regarding the origin of the Barrington patriline there is an interesting family name Berntim listed in an 1869 Alexander Murray census for Miawpukek that gives a Daniel Berntim.
    Could the NL Mc patronym Berntim be an attempted rendition of Barrington? This patronym is highly marked or very rare and is not found elsewhere throughout the eastern domain of islands of Mi’kma’kik. Note also Brandts (sic.) Point, as if reflecting Brant’s (sic.), the name of the old Indian settlement of Miawpukek. Could this be a variant of Bran(g)t(on) with concomitant loss of final -on! Note also the family name Branton, pronounced as Banton, Bantem, ….of TB South, and the place name Bentham (Wix 1835), for Rantem. I think that the family name Brandt is an old one in Miawpukek whose patrilineal descendants either died out or married out into other family lines losing the hereditary family name. The family name was significant enough that it was preserved and passed on as the name of the old Indian village or settlement-so it held high esteem and prestige by the Indians of old at one time. These are just some food for though for you to ponder in the coming days. I look fwd to and appreciate your input and feedback.


  23. Hi Devon, here are some of my atDNA matches from FTDNA Family Finder showing family name, theorized relationship or genetic distance, shared centimorgans, longest block shared and some common NL Mc ancestral names associated with that family line:

    Young (Le Jeune dit Briard)
    2nd-4th cousins

    2nd-4th cousins
    (Sheppard, Payne, Brake, Matthews, Blanchard, Joe)

    (Park, Blanchard, Matthews, Joe)

    (Blanchard, Payne, Matthews)

    (Bernard, Chego, Doucet, Dennis, Helie, Louis, Marche, Muis)

    (Benoit, Bernard, Blanchard, Cheog, Doucet, Joseph, Leblanc, Lejeune, Michel, Muis, Park, Perrier, Matthews, White, Young)

    5th-Remote cousins
    (Benoit, Bernard, Chego, Doucet, Helie, Joseph, Leblanc, Lejeune, Matthews, Muis, Webb, White)

    Other matches include Humbers, Benoits, Whites and Youngs from BOI and Bay St. George as 4th-Remote cousins.

    I have reconstructed my maternal and paternal family trees or genealogies going back 5-6 Gens and none of these common NL Mc patrilines are anywhere in the “paper trail” or written record. I suspect that the so called French or French Indian connection comes from the mother of my paternal great-great-grandfather, who was believed to emanate from Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole River, PB, with a connection to Trinity, TB North-my gut feeling tells me that she is the woman associated with the family of Peter Brazil at Trinity 1818-22. All of my other matches in the database for NL are “right on the money” and in accord showing a one-to-one match or correspondence with the paper trail record. In other words, the predicted shared relationships match the paper trial records. For instance, the TB South patriline to which we are known to trace ancestry back to a common forefather in Trinity, TB North, dated ca. 1795 (224-5 years), where one group split off and migrated to TB South (NHr area) and the other to Piper’s Hole-Black River, both show up as 5th-Remote Cousins, or 6-7 Gens which is what the YDNA STR calculator evidence shows and predicts-a perfect match. To date, I have no known matches to either NL Mc or NL Anglo-Irish on the south coast, such as Fortune Bay, or SW coast, such as Burgeo-Lapoile, but only clusters at CBS-CBN, TBSouth-North, and BOI (Bay of Islands-Bonne Bay) & Bay St. George’s, where the former two clusters are in perfect alignment with my paper trail genealogy, as all of my known Anglo-Irish ancestors emanated from there. To date, no records (whether birth, marriage, or death) of my paternal great-great-great-grandmother, or for that fact any of my paternal great-great-grandfather’s siblings and cousins, have been found-we don’t even know her first name, but Anne is suspected given the occurrence of several place names associated with her in the TB South area. No one knows anything about them other than that they came from Piper’s Hole and show up around 1849-59 at THr, Tb South. I think that this evidence is the missing link connecting this ghost or phantom ancestor, and Trinity, TB North and Piper’s Hole, PB. Coincidentally, my paternal line or patriline vanishes from Trinity, TB North and migrates to Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas at the same time that the small Mc family referenced in Hickson 1820/1 disappears from Trinity during the summer of 1822. It is interesting to note that the common thread here in all the matches is the Brake, Park, Matthews and Joe connection. 4-5th cousin matches would be around right for my paternal great-great-grandfather’s mother. If this is not a case of IBC (Identical By Chance), but IBD (Identical By Descent) AIMS (Ancestry Informative Markers), which excludes “false positives” which would feed a “confirmation bias”, which I don’t think that it is, something is pulling the atDNA test results closer to BOI NL Mc kin groups going back 6-7 Gens (5th-Remote Cousin), in all probability perhaps reflects a shared, uniparental, remote common ancestor between the BOI Brake-Matthews-Park extended kin group and mine, say ca. 1795-1805. Coincidentally, my paternal great-great-grandfather also resided at Quirpon-Cape Norman, GNP (Great Northern Peninsula), and is somehow associated with a small group of 3 Indians (probably NL Mc-Mont, or Lab Mont), which show up on record (cf., NL Censuses 1859, & Bonavista-Trinity Bay RC parish registers showing raising of young girl by an Indian woman residing there). Incidentally, older members of my patriline emanating from Piper’s Hole, PB going back 3-4 Gens self-identified as French. In our community when other residents talked about the old French-English Wars (presumably either Father Baudoin’s War of 1696/7 or Queen Anne’s War 1706) my great-grandfather would point to a burial plot where 3 Frenchmen were buried and say “there are 3 Frenchmen buried over there, 2 of them are P…s”. Johnnie Martin, a self-proclaimed Frenchman, who called himself by said name, and allegedly also spoke French, talked a lot about the desertion event at Piper’s Hole and our family in the same sentence, and how his family line derived from a similar desertion event (his mother being my paternal great-great-grandfather’s sister) in Labrador while coming down from Labrador on a schooner and being born in a cave somewhere around “The Horn”, so it seems that our patriline has been around for a long time in Upper PB, going back and forth from Upper PB to TB South, say since 1670. My paternal grandfather only left this area in ca. 1934, and returned during the fall as late as 1968-70 to guide caribou hunters from TB South to the Black River Mts. & Black River Pd., going inland westward from the North Harbour Barrens-that’s not that far back. The French and/or French Indian connection makes sense given the association with the Martin patriline from Indian Cove, PHR, PB.. It would be interesting to see what future atDNA testing shows with any suspected connection between the Brake-Matthews-Park kin group noted above-time will tell. Very interesting indeed!

  24. REPLY PART 2:

    Thank you for the links on the archeology finds. I had read about these some time ago, and had used one of Penney’s reports for a Mi’kmaq proposal for Fortune Bay.

    I had seen that photograph of Fanny Bow(e) before a long while ago. I remember some debate over her ancestry. Definitely Native American, but what tribe was the question at the time. Labrador is an area that is very unfamiliar to me genealogically, as is Conception & Trinity Bays. Ethnic percentages is a tricky science, as really the companies are only comparing your DNA to known reference populations. I take them as an idea of your ethnic percent, but not as exact numbers. If you test at all of the Big 3 DNA companies (FTDNA, 23andMe & Ancestry) you will likely see some significant differences, and thankfully gedmatch has a great tool for showing different ethnic calculators for free. By the way, what is your mother’s gedmatch kit number? I would like to do a direct comparison to a few of my kits to see if they match at all.

    I enjoy having on file, the information about the Brazil/Basque family and could be of use in the future. Thomas JOE & Marie CABISH, suspected parents of Elizabeth (JOE) BLANCHARD mentioned in this article, had a son Thomas JOE Jr. baptized in King’s Cove in the early 1800s.

    I have a couple descendants of Elizabeth (BERNARD) LAVHEY on gedmatch, with the closest being a gg granddaughter. It would be interesting to see if they match any BERNARD descendants in other parts of Newfoundland.

    I think the biggest untapped resource for Fortune Bay, Burin Peninsula & Placentia Bay Mi’kmaq may be the St. Pierre RC records. I think within those records, there are clues to the early Mi’kmaq families of the area. I know some are online, but I know not all. With the first RC records dating only back to 1833 (as Placentia records prior to this weren’t recorded), I think if someone had the capacity to go through those records it would greatly benefit our research.

    1. I am quite certain that Mc Cabish derives from Mc tqope’j “twin”-note the NB-Que Mc Marie (or Mali) patrilines are presumably related; cf. UNB Mi’kmaq Vital Statistic records online. I am also quite certain that the NL Mc Bernard patriline are somehow related to the Bigge and de Lwett ones cited in a Thomas White 1808 Census for Bay St. George (Sandy Point), which lists a Louis Guhu (needs checking) Bigge and de Lwett as 2 Indians residing there (Butt ). The first of the set has a given and family that bears a striking resemblance to the Louis Hugo Pikteuaruel (perhaps a variant of Pekitualuet, Peguidalouet, Beguiddavalouet, Picquid Oulat, Pegidawa Oulat,…) listed in the Saint Pierre at Miquelon parish registers and other ethnohistoric references, while the second family name de Lwett appears to be an attempted rendition of the econd element of the Peguidalouet patronym, namely -dalouet. If I were to lay my bets on this I would have to say that what we are looking at here is one of 2 scenarios, namley: 1.) a father by name of Peguidalouet took the first element Mc peki~piji-“long” as a family name while his son or a brother took the second element as a family name. A reconstructed etymology for the Pekitualuet patronym was discussed in detail in The Newfoundland Ancestor, while the 2 names referenced above are cited in Kirk R. Butt’s book “Early Settlers of Bay St. George” (2013) Vol. 1-2. I don’t have a page volume and page number, but I am quite certain that it is cited in Vol. 1, on early Mi’kmaq presence in the area. I am certain that the Bay St. George, Conne River and Piper’s Hole Bernards (and also Brunals as listed in the Newman & Co. Little Bay Ledgers) are one and the same patriline. Coincidentally, the ancient NL Mc toponym Nukamkia’ji’jk “Sandy Harbour” (PB) and the same place name for Sandy Pond (FB) (Hewson 1978,& Pacifique 1935), the latter a known hunting territory of the Bernard family from Conne River, Bay d’Espoir, may not be a coincidence. The question remains which is the older toponym, and by whom was it transplanted or transferred-in all probability by the Bernard (Pekitualuet) patriline. A similar argument may be extended to the place names Sa’npatistek (FB) “Brunette Island (Fortune)” (south of Long Harbour River and west of Fortune), and the same one referring to Lake St. John or “John Pond” (referenced in JHA 1864-Smith McKay Northern Mail Route “Orange Lane” survey 1863), near Mollyguajeck (Maliku’jek, named after Malagawatch, Cape Breton, NS & Mirligueche, after the band which Saqamaw Jeannot Peguidaluet ruled). These place names are invariably derived from the given and last names of Jean Baptiste with locative morpheme -ek. I am almost positive that the John family derives from Jean Baptiste, perhaps the same Jean Baptiste (Sekaquet-a variant of Chegau, Chegaguisht,….) referenced in the SPM parish registers and Newman & Company Little Bay Ledgers (1790-1). Note that the John family name also exists among Abenaki kin groups as A(r)gent~Ozon, where Fr. Argent has been rendered as a corruption in NL Anglo-Irish dialects for Upper PB dialectal speech communities as John; cf. Bay de John (fr. Baie de Argent). In addition to Jean Baptiste the John family name could also derive from a nickname for Placentia Bay person or Piper’s Hole person. So a name like James John as referenced in Cormack 1822 and Burin RC parish registers would have been something like Jean Jean (Baptiste), which later became Jean Jean (Eng. John John) with loss of Baptiste-note John John for James John in Whitbourne RC parish registers. it is known that James and John were used interchangeably among the Martin and Barrington patrilines from Piper’s Hole, PB. Pinip Jeddore (We’jitu) citing NL Mc oral traditions claims that the Johns came from “Placentia Way” (Ancestry Message Board on-line, 2011), while his grandfather Pi(y)e’l Jeddore told Stoker of MUN Folklore in a recorded and transcribed interview that “the Johns came from Terra Nova [River] (ie., the headwaters of the Terra Nova River, near John Pond & Mollyguajeck, Gander Bay) (P. Jeddore, pers. comm., 2006). Coincidentally, Duncan Barrington of Indian Cove, PHR, PB hunted and trapped out of Mollyguajeck, having learned this seasonal round of subsistence-settlement from his father John Barrington Sr..

      1. Hi Piperholeman, My step father who raised me from the time I was one and his name was Louis John. His mother was Mary Ellen John (1901-1996). Her father was Louis John (1868-1957) His father was Peter John (1831-1924). I’m afraid I don’t have much more information than that. I noticed in you postings you spoke a fair amount on the John family. I was wondering if you would like to share any information you may have on this family. Anything would be greatly appreciated as I’m trying to trace all sides of my family for my entire family members. I also have a 4th great grandfather, John Smith (approx. 1804) from Oderin . That side of my family came to Nova Scotia in 1913. Thank you for the information I read on this site today.

        1. Hi Velda, unfortunately everything that I know on the John family has already been shared in the public domain through the published quarterly magazine “The Newfoundland Ancestor”, and on-line through Newfoundland Gen Web-Upper Placentia Bay (Burin & Fortune Bay RC Records). All I know is that my family of Pecks (or Picks) lived with the Johns, Barrintgons and Martins at the old Mc village (or encampment) of Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole River. My family and the Martins only talked a lot about Old John, Duncan & Thos. Barrington, or when referencing outside of the Barrington family proper referring to the other Indians generally as “the Indians from Piper’s Hole”. After meeting Howard and Bryan Barrington at Garden Cove in 2004 they talked a lot about Louis John that you reference above-so perhaps the Barringtons might know more. There is also an on-line article about Louis John published in the Atlantic Guardian through MUN DAI (Digital Archives Initiative) that references an incident where John Barrington and Louis John get lost in the country and one of them falls in the water-really funny! I am so sorry that I don’t have much on the John family from Conne River-Gambo-Piper’s Hole. I suspect that the old John family calimed to be of Mountaineer (Mont-Nask) origin, may have had a Red Indian or Beo connection through PHR, PB, and are somehow connected to the Jean Baptiste (Sekaquet) listed in the St. Pierre et Miquelon parish registers and 1790-1 Newman & Co. Little Bay Ledgers. I read some of your on-line queries, looks like you put a lot of time and effort into researching your family history-a weath of information to say the least on the John family. I always found the John family history and story fascinating and their interaction w/ the Red Indians (and according to some accounts distant RI or Beo ancestry). I know for a fact that my grandfather knew more about them, and whenever their name came up there was a silent and humble respect-but very few words as my paternal family were very, very secretive and “mouth shut”. That is so commendable and respectable-thank you for sharing that information. I’ll ask some people in my community if they know anything on Louis John, I think that I know one person whose father worked with Louis a long time ago in Grand Falls, I just need to corroborate the details of the story since I heard it a long time ago, okay. Hope this helps!

  25. REPLY PART 1 (MAY 28 2017):

    Hi Again PipersHoleMan,
    Once again thank you so much for the wealth of information. It’s quite amazing how much information you have amassed and no doubt this information will be valuable for years and years to come. Please continue to tell us more about what you have learned.

    I have studied the set of family history records for Placentia Bay. They are many, but I highly doubt they even put a dent into the amount of records that were lost. The residing priest at the time, gathered (very honourably) as many records as he could from those who were living in the areas and readily accessible for information, but it seems many many families were left out. Thankfully there are bits and pieces of some families in which we can pick from.

    I did record a Martin MURPHY & Sarah WITHERS located in the Placentia Bay records listed as having a son Thomas MURPHY (m. Martha HUNT) born 1844 in D’Argent Bay. I believe D’Argent Bay is one of the old names for an area around Piper’s Hole. That name doesn’t show very often. In addition, a Martin MURPHY shows up for Sound Island in 1843 having a son Peter (m. Mary RYAN). An examination of the Burin RC Records shows Martin MURPHY and Sarah WITHERS had a son Thomas baptized June 28 1846, on that same day a John MURPHY and Hannah Withers had a child baptized (no doubt related). Interesting of note… on June 27 1846 & June 29 1846 quite a number of known Bay D’Espoir/Indian related families had children baptized in the Burin church.. The following are:
    Jun 27 Baptized Mary of Michael Collier and Elizabeth Organ
    Jun 27 Baptized William of John Hayward and Susanna McDonald
    Jun 27 Baptized Frances of James Organ and Rachel Collier
    Jun 27 Baptized Frances of Edward McDonald and Mary Organ
    Jun 27 Baptized Thomas of William Foote and Jane Crant
    Jun 29 Baptized Margaret of Silas Hull and Susan Allen
    Jun 29 Baptized James of Dennis Long and Margaret Allen
    Jun 29 Baptized William of George Hiskott and Mary Allen
    Jun 29 Baptized David Hiskott a protestant 26 years old

    This signifies that the MURPHY’s were living around these families. I know from family history, the family of John MURPHY & Mary Bridget BROWN lived back and forth between Piper’s Hole & St. Joseph’s, their two daughters are pictured on this page and were known as Indian. If you scroll down the page you will see Jane Hayse (a descendant of theirs) stated that Anastasia would say she grew up in a tilt in Piper’s Hole. No doubt the Murphy’s had a close relationship with the natives in the area, and these records only solidify that. Based on Walter MURPHY & Bridget RYAN’s children’s baptisms, they seem to have spent much time in Little Harbour West (Close to St. Joseph’s). Probably moving back and forth.

    Martin MURPHY & Sarah WITHERS also had Anne baptized 1847.

    John MURPHY & Hannah WITHERS had Mary MURPHY baptized (Aug 15 1843); Note for Mary: following baptisms were around her baptism:
    Aug 9 Baptized Thomas of Thomas Crant and Martha Foote
    Aug 9 Baptized Anne of John Mcdonald and Rebecca Neil
    Aug 10 Baptized Judith of Peter John and Mary Brassil
    Aug 10 Baptized Gabreil of Matthew Brasil and Jinny Barth?
    Aug 13 Baptized Laurence of Laurence Murray? And Mary Chiasty???
    Aug 13 Baptized Marian of John Corbel and Diana Cox
    Aug 14 Baptized Mary of Daniel Bomboo??? And Susan Johns
    Aug 16 Baptized James of James Culliton Bridget Lundrigan (Note Cullitan is a name of Bar Haven).

    John MURPHY & Hannah WITHERS also had John (1848).

    It can also be noted that the names Foote & Crant/Grant show up in both Sandy Harbour, Placentia Bay and in Bay d’Espoir in the 1800s.

    1. I do know that the Hayse family is connected with my patriline emanating from Trinity, TB North-THr, TB South and Piper’s Hole, PB.. I believe that the Hayses in Piper’s Hole descend from Thomas Hayse Sr.. I don’t know for sure where this patriline emanates from, perhaps Placentia-Argentia, PB or even Burin. I do know that the place names Tom Hayse’s Brook and Hayse’s Cove, located N of Indian Cove-Rattling Brook, and south of Birchy Islands & Salmon Hole, near the PHR bridge, as listed on some unpublished maps for the area, and known to local Swift Current community residents, is invariably named after Old Tom Hayse, and his family or direct descendants. As per PB Vital Stats the Culletons are also connected with my patriline from Sound Island, but I don’t know how for sure, but I do know that the place names Culleton’s Strait, where my family lived somewhere south of Bollard’s Town (Muddy Hole), Sound Island and perhaps Bar Haven or Barren Island, and the toponym Culleton’s Pond, northwest of Toby Outlook (Mc Kenukwtik) & south of Shoprock (Huskie Outlook), Indian (Dirty) Scrape and Blackhead derive from this family name. The Culleton’s are one of the early settler names in the PHR area, and are listed in the 1851 Gisbourne Survey and several fisheries petitions for Sound Island (as per NL Gen Web scanned documents). As for the family name Bumbo some Conne River elders I talked to believed that it is a corruption of Benoit [benwa], which became something like [bumwa ~bumbwa~ bumbo] in fast speech. The Martha Hunt that you named may be Martha Pike of Baker’s Cove, between Garden Cove & North Harbour, who married John Hunt 1898 at St. Kyran’s-I’m not sure about that though. Incidentally, some of the Holletts to whom my patriline are related to claim that one of their distant uniparental ancestors, perhaps the wife of John Hollett Jr. cited in Wix 1835 at Salmon Hole, PHR, may have been NA or part-NA. They remember stories of “Indians coming to visit their family”, and hearing stories of an Indian connection going way back to Piper’s Hole. Like Philip Brown, a well-known merchant-middleman of Sound Island & Piper’s Hole, John Hollett, is referenced as trading with the NL Mc at same said place in numerous published references (Howley 1868, NL Railroad Survey JHA 1875). A newspaper article posted on NL Gen Web describes a detailed walk (1844)(http://www.roots taken by a lone Indian guide from Exploit’s River, NDB to Cape St. Mary’s, while stopping for a night at Mr. Hollett’s. I do know that a direct living descendant has inherited a 1-2 pg vocabulary or word list of suspected NA origin, recorded by a linguist, as spoken by a first-generation descendant of Mr. Hollett. If I recall several historical-comparative linguists examined or investigated this word list and were unsuccessful in assigning it
      to any known language family, either Indo-European or Algonquian, and may be some sort of patois, trade language or pidgin or even a secret language. I do know that the language that Johnnie Martin, of Indian Cove, PHR-Rantem, TB South, spoke was definitely not French but some kind of Indian language-as per my fieldwork recording and field note transcriptions it was definitely NL Mc or Ktaqmkukewi’simk. Charles Jamieson of Swift Current commented on this language as follows “….he burst into a flood of language entirely unitelligible to us” (http://www.rootsweb .ancestry. com/~cannf/pb_pike2.htm). For some reason Johnnie Martin called himself a Frenchman, but all living relatives insist that he looked more Indian. They all point out the photograph of Old John William Paul of Badger’s Brook, as published in the Community History of Grand Falls-Windsor, as bearing a remarkable resemblance. Alphonsus Barrington believed that the Barringtons and Pauls may have been somehow related, but didn’t know how. He did remember a story told to him by his father (Alphonse Barrington Sr.) where one of the Pauls came up to him one time while he was a young man (in Badger Brook) and said “you guys are related to us, you guys are Mountaineers (Mont-Nask from Lab)” (A. Barrington, pers. comm., 2004)-I don’t find that ethnic descriptor surprising given the Lab Mont connection for many NL Mc-Mont families (it may also be a taboo-deformation of referring to the now-extinct NL Red Indian or Beothuk, which were known to have associations with Lab Mont). Some NL Mc elders believe that Johnnie Martin’s father may have come from Conne River, FB. I sincerely think and feel that this opinion is correct given the available evidence at hand. I heard stories growing up that “his father (John Martin Sr.) came over on a boat from Nova Scotia to lay the submarine telegraph line”, “his father might have come from Conne River”, while other stories say “Saint Pierre-Miquelon”, “Piper’s Hole”, “The Horn” (either Quirpon-Cape Norman, or even Conne River), “one of the islands in Placentia Bay”, “the outer coastline [Burin]”, “one of the islands in PB”, “France”, and the list goes on and on ad nauseum. I am convinced that the history of the Martin family at Piper’s Hole-Black River at least, is connected with the electric telegraph line (1859-), and perhaps reflects an even earlier subsistence-settlement pattern of this area by Conne River Mc (cf. Michael Martin listed in the Newman & Co. Little Bay Ledgers, Jean Martin “”garcon montannier” listed in the SPM parish registers,..). I believe the Holletts, Gosneys, (the former marrying 2 Hutchings from Chance Cove, TB South, as per TA records) and Martins learned the skill of telegraph line repairmen from the John families of Conne River-Long Harbour, FB-Piper’s Hole, PB first. Hope this helps.

  26. Hi Devon, I assume that you have studied the multi-volume set of W. P. Doutney’s Family History Records for PB (unpublished) currently held at the RC Basilica Archives, St. John’s. This tome of app. 3-4 bounded parish register records (app. 500-600 pp) consisting of photocopied leaflets has a wealth of data on families from Upper PB extending from St. Kyran’s-Presque northward to Sound Island, with all islands and coastal communities contained therein within that domain. Unless my research survey served me wrong, If I recall specifically there were no references to Barringtons, Johns and Martins from Black River-Piper’s Hole in the original collection, which is unusual given that double copies did survive and were forwarded to NL Civil Registration Vital Statistics (Return of Births, Marriages & Deaths) for PB District. There are a lot of records in there for McCarthy …with most records emanating from Merasheen, Long Island, Red Island, Barren Island, Davis Cove… Apart from what we have on the Barrington patriline through the St. Bernard’s RC parish registers and NL Civil Registration records, we know next to nothing about this patriline (except for official exploration-survey ethnohistoric reports) as it is known in Upper PB (Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas), there is very little if any other archival evidence that has survived-Burin RC, KCRC, HGRC records are all silent. As far as I know i don’t think that anyone has found the official baptism certificate of John Barrington yet, and assuming that the family history traditions are correct of a foundling event I sincerely doubt that it will ever be found-on official record at least. So the only thing left beyond the ethnohistoric evidence which is already out in the published public domain, is reconstructed family history-genealogy based on weaving the threads of surviving parish registers and emerging commercial genetic genealogy testing among alleged or putative living descendants. As a postscript, private research laboratories like Max Planck Institute & Reich’s lab at Harvard University have the technology to target 1.5-3.0 million SNPS of aDNA samples through archaeogenetic-bioarchaeological comparative research surveys. These laboratories also have access to Next Gen whole genome sequencing which targets the whole human genome of app. 10,000,000 SNPs, and not just 700,000 like FTDNA, Ancestry DNA,….. The technology is here now to answer some of the genetic genealogy questions with precision that we both tabled, and will be made available to the public domain in the near future at a lower cost. The technology is also now here through Max Planck Institute to analyze aDNA from artefacts and tissue residue in soil samples without excavating or disturbing human remains.


    Future advances in aDNA technology and eventually commercial genetic genealogy testing, with explorations of “junk DNA” and how it interacts with heritability, will make modern direct-to-consumer, commercial genetic genealogy testing offered by vendors look primitive and antiquated. It will be like comparing arithmetic to Ramanujan’s modular functions or Newtonian Mechanics to Einsteinian Relativity!

  27. Here is a photograph of my great-grandmother Fanny Bow(e) (my mother’s biological mother’s mother, with her mother sitting as a baby at right), reported to be “1/2 Indian”, according to family and community oral traditions at least. Oral traditions state that “they were Indians” and “they came down from Labrador on a schooner”. However, recent atDNA testing has revealed that her biogeographic ethnic origin percentage could have been no more than app. 4.8-6.0% NA/Inuit/Siberian as my mother’s biogeographic ethnic origin percentage is only 1.2% (combined Northern Amerindian, Northern Siberian & South/Central Asian) through DNA Tribes. Closest reference population matches are in Ecuador, Mexico and Greenland Inuit. However, GEDMatch shows higher percentages of combined NA-Siberian in the lower-upper order limits of app. 3.0%-5.0%, while FTDNA and AncestryDNA gives only Finland/Northern Siberia and Finland/NW Russia of app. 3.0-5.0%. As a direct living descendant of this patriline, I feel obligated to comment of the mismatch between genetics, observed facial features attested in surviving photographs and family-community oral traditions, and in so doing to dispel some of the myths surrounding the origins of this enigmatic group, which for some reason has been conflated or mixed up with Labrador Indians (Innuat or Mont-Nask). I am confident in now after reviewing all of the evidence at hand in commenting that the physical type, bone structure or physiognomy is not typical of Amerindian (whether Eastern or Central Algonquian), but is consistent with mixed Lab. Inuit or mixed Western Eurasian-Inuit (Kablunanngajuit, or Metis). After conducting years of research on the matter I am 99.9% confident in stating that at least for the Bowe-Rowe patrilines emanating from Brigus-Cupids, CBN with a known “Indian” (but really distant Inuit) connection to Labrador, it was never NL Mc, but mixed Inuit going back ca. 1780-1800.


  28. Hi Devon, here is one more series of transcripts relating to the Brazil-Basque connection at Trinity, TB North-the same family of Brazils residing at Piper’s Hole, PB & Conne River, FB.:

    Anne Brazil, of Trinity, 1818 (Nfld. Archives, KCRC) (Seary 1988: 33)

    This is the first mention of a Brazil kin group, presumably residing in Trinity Bay North, and may refer to either a daughter of Peter Brazil and Mary Ann (sic.) Brazil (nee Bask [Basque]) referenced in the HGRC Baptism records outlined below, or it may be the wife of Peter Brazil Sr., in which case she may have been going by her middle name Ann(e). If this is the same Peter Brazil as listed in the TA death register for Trinity, TB, then his wife was probably Mary Ann Bask (or Basque), a baptismal record for Catherine Braziel (sic.) [Brazil] of which is listed below:

    21st Cathn of Braziel Peter & Mary Ann Bask
    Sps Richd Ragan & Cathn English Thos. Ewer (HGRC-Harbour Grace Roman Catholic Baptism parish registers, NL Archives-The Rooms)(

    The next reference for the Brazil patriline comes from the Methodist missionary field notes or diary of Rev. Hickson during the summer of 1820/1 who encountered at small extended kin group of NL Mc at Trinity, TB North. Although the given and family name of the head of household is not explicitly stated, without question or doubt the writer or author was referencing Peter Brazil Sr. who died and was buried in the Trinity Churchyard on Dec. 30, 1821.


    [“Last July”, meaning either July 1820 or 31 July 1821 ?]

    I visited, went to an Indian Wigwam, its inhabitants belonged to the tribe called Micmacks and were Christians. What pleased me most was finding them so forward to speak about God, their souls and heaven. The spoke in broken english, but their language savoured of godly sincerity. The principal of them spoke of the providential care of God over all his creatures saying “dere be ten tousand, & tousands, but got miss none. me been very ill, me thought I might be gone in morning; me lie down here, me not tink get up again; me spect to die; but de goot got mind me gain”. I made enquiries respecting the different parts of his family, and I found he had taken one out of charity. He said “She noting kin me, she noting kin my wife, but all her people go! She left! She perish! me took her, because me wish do some tink for got”. I asked him whether he prayed with them all together, to which he answered “da all want go to heaven, me say prayers load, den da say with me”. I proposed to pray with them, which was gladly received, they pointed me to kneel down, I prayed with as plain words as possible, and when I had done they all expressed their gratitude in their countenances, by clasping their hands and saying “tank you Sir, tank you sir, me never had so goot people come see me before”. I came home much pleased with my visit. This day in the [unclear] human habitation even in an Indian Wigman, I have felt heard and seen God (The end)
    ( … 20110.html)


    Peter Brazil, “noted Indian” [presumably Newfoundland Mi’kmaq, or Ktaqmkukewaq] who “died at Trinity but no fixed place of abode”, buried at the St. Paul’s Trinity Anglican cemetary on Dec. 30th 1821, aged 49 [calculated DOB 1772] ( The next reference to the reportedly same NL Mc family, this time without mention to a male head-of-household comes from Rev. Walsh’s meeting of a small NL Mc family totalling 5 household members [2 women, 3 children (1 girl, 2 boys)] at Trinity, TB North presumably during the late spring or early summer of 1822. One can infer from the numerical census estimate that the elder woman may indeed the widowed spouse of Peter Brazil Sr. who passed away on Dec. 30, 1821, and the woman with 3 children may in fact have been the adoptee (whether NL Mc-Montagnais, Montagnais or even NL Red Indian….

    The next mention of this presumably same NL Mc family comes from an excerpt extracted from Dorathy Anger’s book titled No’qwamkisk “Where the Sand Blows……” detailing an encounter between Rev. John Walsh and small group of Micmac (Mi’kmaq) Indians, in 1822 located approximately ¼ of a mile in the woods from the English settlement of Trinity, Trinity Bay, NL, outlined as follows:

    [Start of Extract]
    5, 6, 7. The following three pieces tell us something about the political and community structure of the Micmacs. I will close this letter by giving you the substance of a conversation which I had with an Indian woman… in Trinity. The wigwam in which she and her family were, was about a quarter mile in the woods. It was made of bark, of a conical form, and about twenty feet in circumference. The fire was in the middle of the wigwam, and the top left open, which served for a chimney; and it was only near the centre that we could stand upright. As there were no seats, we sat down upon the ground. There were two women, one girl, and two boys. They were of the tribe of Micmacks from the island of Cape Breton. They had been in different parts of Newfoundland for a considerable time, and subsist partly by mendicity, and partly by making small trinkets which people purchase of them. They are of a Mulatto colour; their clothes in some respects, resemble those worn by the English, except their caps, which, like the wigwams, are in the form of a sugarloaf.

    .. .1 began as follows:-Of what tribe are you? “We be Micmack tribe, from Cape Breton.” Are there many of your tribe in Cape Breton? “Oh yes, great many; me suppose three or four hundred.” Do your people live together in the woods in Cape Breton? “0, we live in towns with merchants.” Do you live in wigwams in Cape Breton? “Yes, but not like dis; dis no good wigwam, we better in Cape Breton, and here be merchant’s hotise, and here be wigwam.” Have you any head-man or chief among you? “0 yes, we have chief in Cape Breton.” What kind of laws have you?

    “0 we very good laws.” But suppose one of your tribe should kill another, what punishment would your chief inflict upon the offender? “0, we never kill one another, ……” But suppose one of your tribe should kill one of your own tribe, what would your chief then do to him. “0 kill him.” If one of your tribe steal from another, what would your chief do to him. “Take something from him.” Have you any priest in Cape Breton? “0 yes, we have priest in Cape Breton; twenty years ago our chief send to Quebec for priest, and Bishop said, You build chapel, and me send you Priest, so we build chapel, and den we get Priest.”
    [End of Extract]

    Primary Source: 1822 Rev. John Walsh, Bonavista, Letter, July 30. In 1982 Naboth Winsor, Hearts Strangely Warmed: A History of Methodism in Newfoundland 1765-1925, vol. 1. Gander: B.S.C. Printers, pp. 79-80.

    Secondary Source: Noqwamkisk Where the Sand Blows-Vignettes of the Bay St. George’s Micmacs

    The presence of Peter Brazil makes sense given the noted occupation of neighboring King’s Cove, BB by other NL Mc families for purposes of visiting a parish priest, and perhaps to exploit economic opportunities such as trading/bartering, and hunting-trapping,… Note the presence of small band of NL Mc residing at or near King’s Cove, BB during the time period 1815-29, as recorded in the KCRC parish registers:


    The Brazil family, through the John (Baptiste) and Bernard (Pekitualuet) families that intermarried with each other, are all interconnected and tie in with the Barrington patriline of Piper’s Hole, PB-Conne River, FB.

    Ps. I will give a more detailed synopsis of my atDNA test matches through FTDNA Family Finder showing exact family names and ancient ancestral surnames. Until then I will answer any questions that you may have regarding any area of research study on the reconstructed ethnohistory of Piper’s Hole, PB.. In the coming week I will be preoccupied with work-related duties and will have very little time to respond in full to your queries with the full attention and depth that they amply deserve.

  29. Hi Devon, I read your response re. the Picco connection in Piper’s Hole through the Barrington patriline-thank you for sharing that info. . I suspected that the Ann Picco in question was a d/o J. Barrington Sr.. Yeah it’s nice to know that there are still other researchers like yourself who are actively interested and conducting on-going research in NL Ethnohistory. Your fiery passion for the topic reminds me of myself 10-13 years ago, and is both respectable and commendable-to quote Charles Martijn (pers. comm. 2006-7): “I never seen that type of fiery passion in anyone in a long time” . In so doing I extend the same comment to you.
    Although I no longer conduct primary research in this area of study, due to commitments of starting a family and paying high education debts, that does not detract from the fact that I still have an active interest, concern and passion for this type of research. I would like to see other researchers like yourself take up the torch and carry on the work -you realize and already conceded it’s important to preserve this information for future generations. My role right now is more of an unpaid or volunteer consultant or informant. I will admit that while I know quite a bit about the area of study my humility forces me to concede that I don’t know everything-I too am learning and growing; hence the importance of reciprocal sharing of information. Knowing that, I am more than willing to share whatever information I have on the topic that has already not been shared yet in the public domain. I am an open-minded and learned man open to any questions tabled on the topic, and will do my best to answer the questions to the best of my knowledge or to direct you to informants or consultants who can competently and altruistically do so. As I had a tendency in the past of becoming somewhat consumed in sharing information via e-mail correspondence, going-on-and-on ad nauseum with details and data, I would prefer to keep all dialogue on the topic in the public domain via this blog. Time constraints and other commitments prevent me from exploiting the option of e-mail communication at present-I sincerely apologize for any inconvenience incurred otherwise. Furthermore, in the name of altruism and transparency, I personally think that it is important to put this information out in the open. Regarding the known or attested ethnohistory of Piper’s Hole, the evidence neither warrants nor necessitates full censorship, even when it comes to the somewhat controversial, conjectured RI connection (as I am sure that you are already aware) for the NL Mc-Mont families emanating from there. As this is a NL Mc Family History-Genealogy website blog focus should be on NL Mc-Mont-exclusive of a proposed RI connection going back ca. 1800-(6-7 Gens).

    With regard to the research here are some of my unanswered questions:

    1.) unpublished Barrington oral traditions suggest that John Barrington (a foundling) had an older sister and younger brothers and sisters who were known to have survived-the questions remain did some of these siblings survive into adulthood and what family name(s) did they assume, and if so can current atDNA, YDNA and mtDNA testing verify this distant relationship among putative direct living descendants?;
    2.) the connection between Brigus, CBN and Piper’s Hole, PB has been attested in the written record via parish records and oral family histories where the spouses of John Barrington Sr., Louis John (of Peter John & Ellen Hall/Hann/Haw), and Big John Stevens, were known to emanate from there. The question remains does this partnership exchange network result as the evidence suggests from the mail route survey (1863-4), electric telegraph line maintenance work (1859-) and later NL railroad survey (1875-) or did kinship connections go even deeper in time to ca. 1810-? It has been suspected that the Hawco (Hacquoil/Hocquard) family emanating from Brigus may have been part-Indian (Alphonsus Barrington, Badger, pers. comm., 2004). Note the presence of app. 11 Labrador Indians (whether Lab Innuat (Mont), Innuts (Nask), Inuit, or a mix of either group) residing at Brigus, CBN from 1810-74, referenced in 3 parish register entries and 1 ethnohistoric missionary journal report (Ellis 1819). NL Mc family historian-genealogist believes that the NL John (Baptiste) and Stevens(on) families may be one and the same, with an undocumented family name (patronym) inversion. He also theorizes that the Stevens family from NL may be the same one referenced in Wix’s 1835 journal residing at Venison Tickle (or Island), Labrador, and consequently the same family that Capt. Bartlett brought down from Lab. on a schooner to Brigus in 1819. Coincidentally, my mother’s family descends from this Lab Innuat/Inuit group, and atDNA testing has confirmed this Northern Amerindian distant relationship! The question remains can atDNA and YDNA testing prove this proposed relationship between the John & Stevens patrilines?

    1. Hi PipersHoleMan,
      I suggested email as a form of communication due to many questions still being unanswered about the ancestry and would not like to spread rumours that are just theories of my own of which some may take as fact. It’s also easier to send attachments via email, of which I have many and would love to see whatever you have accumulated. If you are up for email, I would be very okay with you taking your time getting back to me if you have other commitments to make. Once again, thanks for being so willing to share information.
      As for your questions;
      1. There are several ways DNA could verify a relationship between the Barrington siblings. First an Autosomal DNA test from any of the Big Three DNA companies (FTDNA, 23andme & Ancestry), will match cousins. If for example a descendant of John Barrington tested and matched a cousin who was a descendant of a possible sibling of John that would denote a relationship but would not conclusively verify the connection. In order to aid in this, I would use which is an amazing utility which allows comparisons of chromosomes and how cousins match on those chromosomes. From there I would able to painstakingly determine the Barrington chromosomes and anyone who matches on those segments would be potentially a Barrington descendant. I have successfully done this with my Saunders family. However, there is an easier way to conclusively verify siblings and that is through mtDNA & yDNA. Any male Barrington can her their YDNA tested and if they match another, then they would come from the same Barrington male ancestor. mtDNA helps with sisters. Everyone carries mtDNA from their mother’s mother’s mother etc. If the mtDNA of one person matches another they have the same maternal ancestor within the last few generations (depending on how close the match). So if you suspect one lady is a Barrington sister, you would get a direct female to do a test & if you think another lady is a Barrington sister, you get another direct female to do the test. If they match, they are closely related. However, there is no way to conclusively verify a relationship between brother & sister apart from matching cousins using the autosomal test. It’s all fairly complicated, but the tests work best in conjunction with one another. For example; before doing my Elizabeth Saunders mtDNA test, I noticed several people matching on the same segment of chromosome as descendants of Saunders, I then mapped out their trees and found the common ancestor for all of them was Elizabeth (Joe) Blanchard. As Elizabeth (Joe) Blanchard’s mtDNA was already completed, I was able to do Elizabeth Saunders’ and they came out as a match with a genetic distance of 0 (within last 200-250 years). Autosomal gave me clues, mtDNA confirmed a relationship.
      2. Speaking about Peter John & Ellen Haw.. I was very recently speaking to a descendant of Elizabeth (Hawe/Haus) who was married to a Thomas Isaac Moulton. Her grandson says she was Mi’kmaq Indian. I found out that Elizabeth’s parents were from Woody Island and had several children baptized there. Her parents were Elias Hawe/Haus & wife Ruth (no maiden name). Ruth has no maiden name but Ruth seems to be a popular first names for several children from that area. Also interesting of note; one of Elias & Ruth’s children were baptized in the Methodist church with a son of John & Ann Williams.. Ann has been said to be Mi’kmaq Indian by the Williams family for years and years, and has been known as Hannah Muriah, Ann Maria, Ann Muriah etc. over the years. No idea of her maiden name also. I think these Haw/Haus could definitely be related to Peter John’s wife Ellen Haw.
      That’s very interesting about the Hawco family possible being of Native descent. I had not known about the 11 Labrador Indians residing at Brigus. Do you happen to have links to these parish records & reports? I know there must be some Labrador Native connection to my Saunders/Hackett family due to the Joseph Hackett showing up in Labrador in the 1820s as a half Indian and then in 1818 in Fortune Bay. As for your question, yes atDNA & YDNA can and will confirm the relationship between the John & Stevens patrilinies fairly easy if you get a male John & a male Stevens to do the test. If they match, they share the same male ancestor.
      I read an interview by Calvin Coish with Jerry Wetzel from Conne River, he speaks of his wifes John & Bernard ancestors coming from Placentia Bay, specifically Swift Current & Piper’s Hole. Very interesting, I also read a rather large thesis from Jerry’s son about the Beothuck and Mi’kmaq that as far as I know isn’t in the public domain. Been trying to contact them both for some time.
      Hope to continue conversing with you! I hope to figure out more and more Placentia & Fortune Bay Mi’kmaq families and put the pieces together.

      1. Hi Devon, thanks for the reply-a wealth of information here. Here are the links re. “Indians” in Brigus parish registers:

        Brigus Methodist Baptisms:

        Date: No Entry
        Thomas & Marg. (Indians)

        Sept. 27, 1848

        Eliz., An Indian girl

        Brigus Merthodist Burials:
        Apr. 29, 1874
        Martha Mountane
        (an Indian woman……)


        Here is Rev. Ellis’s missionary journal report for the baptism of 7 “Labrador Indians” at Brigus in 1819, which appears to refer to Labrador Inuit (or mixed Lab Indian-Inuit) and not Mont-Nask:

        ” ” On the 14th last Oct. I baptized six Labrador Indians in a place called Bearneed, about one mile from this.
        They were brought from thence by a Mr. Barelet [sic], who had been fishing there the past summer. They are all of the same family, consisting of a mother, her daughter, son, son’s wife, and their two children. The one other is John (for that is the Christian name we give him) spake a little English. I was enabled to converse with the rest of them by means of a Mr. Neal who had lived several years on the Labrador coast, where he obtained a knowledge of their language. In talking with them, I found they had some ^a knowledge of God and of his son Jesus Christ our Lord; that they wished to be baptized by a protestant missionary, and to be more fully instructed in the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.
        I should not have administered the rite of Christian baptizm [sic] to them until they had been more fully instructed in the principles of our holy religion, but that I feared their falling into the hands of those who too often embue their mind with uncatholic sentiments, of which I myself am a witness [?besides] in consequence of their being baptized by me, their master had told me, that their instruction shall be left to my direction; so that I shall have an opportunity of teaching them those things which make for their endless felicity and, indeed, they appear willing to learn, and evince a docility which affords me great satisfaction.
        Never was there such a congregation assembled in Bearneed as that which congregated ^collected on the day of their Baptism, as indeed no thing of the like nature had ever been witnessed in this Conception Bay before. And while I was preaching the sense of these simple children of nature and of God, such were the impressions [illegible] upon the transfixed audience that great numbers of them were in tears; and while the looks and gestures of my dear Indians seemed to say Am I not a brother? Are we not Brethren? In falling tears and the sympathetic looks of the large congregation seemed to echo back the same language; at least it seemed to me to be the language of every heart “Yes, we recognize you as our fellow men and as our brethren and kinsmen according to the flesh.
        I intend spending one night in the week with teaching them to read, and hope as they intend returning to their own place in the spring, to send them to the bosom of their own tribe with a Bible in their hands and and in some measure able to understand its holy contents.
        Their dress is of the skin of deer and seals, and there is no difference in the manner of wearing it except, that the coats of the women have long tails hanging down to the ground.
        Both men and women wear pantaloons made by the latter, and to the coat of the women is fixed a hood which they carry their young children. Their face is rather broad, eyes a deep black and their colour approaching that of mahogany, their teeth white and well set, hands small and of a fine symmetry and soft as velvet, in a word they are ^an interesting looking creatures ^people. O that I might be the means of bringing these to God.
        I am revd. Sir
        Yours in love
        Wm. Ellis “”

        (Greg Mitchell, personal communication, 2015)

        Note the family name Mountane seems to be an attempted rendition of Eng. Mountain or Fr. Montagnais. Note the connection of the Peckham and Mountain families at Gilbert’s Bay, Labrador. ( Vstats/pre-1891-battle-hr-ce-mar-1850-1882-v114-p-1-31-lab.shtml), where several on-line references give Peckham as half-Innu (Mont-Nask). I personally think that the Peckham-Mountain extended kin group are mixed Anglo-Irish & Inuit-Innuat (Mont-Nask). A similar argument can be extended for the Schelmock family that married into the Stevens patriline of Venison Island (or Tickle), Labrador. While at face value the patronym Schelmock appears to be of Inuktitut/Inuttut origin, note the similarly transcribed Mont family name Shelmok that appears in the Tadoussac (Ktatusaq) RC (Montagnais Indian mission) parish registers from the late 1600s-late 1700s, where it appears to be listed as “Indian” or “Esquimaux Indian”. According to Speck’s ethnohistoric research the Southern Lab Inuit once ranged as far south as Northern NL (Quirpon-Cape Norman) and Quebec North Shore as far as Sept Isles (Ua:sha:t) as late as the 1600-1700s. If I recall correctly based on my university undergraduate studies research Henriksen (1973) (Hunters in the Barrens:….) argued that app. 1/4 of Naskapi from Davis Inlet were of mixed Inuit ancestry, given the connections through intermarriage between Mushuau Innuts and East Cree of Kawawachikamach, near Schefferville, Que., with neighbouring Inuit from coastal northen Lab. & Kuujuaq, Que.. It makes sense that the Inuit and Innuat would have intermarried during the precontact and later contact periods, as they shared converging hunting-fishing domains at times. Hope this helps.

        Hope this helps.

        1. Hi Devon, I don’t know if you have this link for a early-to-mid twentieth century NL Mc connection at Port Hope Simpson, Lab.. This more recent settlement pattern may reflect a deeper, more ancient trend perhaps predating to the early-contact period:

          Note the birth of Mary Ann Louis (1829-1891) d/o Joseph Louis, Mi’kmaq, (probably a relative of John Lewis, variously described as “Mohawk Metis”, Abenaki or Micmac, in various historical sources, who guided for the Beothuck Institute), and Sarah, an Inuk, born at Dumpling (Kennedy 2015:143-145).

          Kennedy, John C. 2015. Encounters: An Anthropological History of Southeastern Labrador. McGill-Queen’s University Press (Google Books on-line).

          The case study of the Louis (or Lewis ) patriline suggests an earlier NL Mc migration-settlement pattern to SE Labrador, as part of an extensive Mi’kmaq domain.

      2. Hi Devon, I will respond to the atDNA comments in the coming 2-3 days okay. Interestingly I have many NL Mc matches through FTDNA Family Finder, ranging from 2nd-5th cousin matches, which was suprising, but not shocking, which brings a shared common uniparental ancestor back to ca. 1800 (5-6 Gens). Joe & Matthews are the common ancient ancestral thread uniting all of these kin groups in my personal matches. Until then.

    2. In addition to my previous comment I came across my old notes. In it I stated that a source had said: “(Sc.4) When Annie Barrington married Ambrose Picco, another man came by the name of Tom Hawco, who had something to do with Swift Current also. John Barrington & Mary Hawco. Tom died in an August Gale (From death records, he drowned on Aug 25, 1927).”

      1. Interestingly, I too am related to the Hawcos of Chapel’s Cove-Holyrood, Harbour Main, CBN, though my father’s mother’s (Williams) side-its supposedly the same group. Hawco shows up as a 2nd-3rd cousin match on FTDNA Family Finder. Through recently discovered affidavit wills & registered ship captain registries, the Hawco family of CBN is definitely of Jersey extraction. The family name Also (Hawco) w/o John Barrington as listed in the St. Bernard’s RC parish registers makes sense given the prevalence of h-dropping at the left-edge of prosodic words, through many NL Anglo-Irish speech communities, as are l-/r- insertion in stressed long vowel initial syllables. The grapheme pronounced as [s] suggests that John Barrington was familiar with and/or partly fluent in St. Pierre-Miquelon or Acadian French, as the orthographic was pronounced as Fr. (with cidella under c) (cf. Fr. garcon “boy”). Through our personal correspondence, William Duggan talked a bit about Mary Hawco, and how some people believed that she may have been of part-Indian descent. It has been speculated that Mary Hawco and Mary Whelan (perhaps Fr. Huelin) were related, being perhaps cousins or sisters. I often heard Alphonse Barrington saying that “Mary Hawco was more of an Indian than old John Barrington”. I don’t know if he meant that she lived more of an Indian lifestyle, or if she looked more Indian. As a side note Alphonse Barrington could remember as a young boy travelling with his family from Badger Brook, Exploit’s River, NDB, to go and visit poor Duncan, his Aunt Polly (Mary) (m. George Crocker) and his grandmother. He could remember getting off the train and walking down to Cape Pine, near Kilmory Resort, Swift Current, waiting on the shore for his uncle Duncan to come over in his canoe (shallop or dory) to pick them up while they were waiting on the shore. The old Barrington family residence or homestead at that time was located at the south end of Brown’s Island (aka Johnnie Martin’s Land), located near the isthmus or peninsula facing Mooring Cove on the east end and Indian Cove on the west end.-app. 30-40 ft. south of John Martin Sr.’s homestead. Note that Indian Cove was situated at the mouth of Rattling Brook, which flowed from the highland of Black Duck Brook, which emanated from Black Duck Pond, eastern side of Toby’s (Fr. Toupie, fr. Tompic) Outlook. The old Indian trail or path extended in a NW direction from Indian Cove, along the west side of Rattling Brook-Black Duck Brook, going inland past Culleton’s Pond and Blackhead-Indian Scrape. In addition to the Telegraph Line route as pathways into the interior taken by Indian travelers, this was perhaps the older Indian trail going into the interior of the island, extending to Exploit’s River in a NW direction through Bay de Nord Wilderness Reserve. Poor Duncan relocated from Indian Cove following the death of his mother and according to some oral traditions his first and only wife/fiance, who is reportedly buried under an apple tree across the river. He then moved in with his sister Polly and niece near George Crocker’s old homestead. Not without tears in his eyes, Alphonse talked a lot about his uncle who he affectionately called Poor Old Duncan. He told me a lot about him which some day I will share in the public domain. As you may know Mary Hawco’s Road in Conne River is named after the w/o John Barrington Sr.. I am quite certain now that the adoptive family of John Barrington Sr. (NL Mc-Mont) emanated from the King’s Cove, BB area, near Trinity, TB North (as per KCRC parish registers). I have located and corresponded with a direct living descendant from this patriline who have corroborated a family story of an Indian connection and hereditary professions as noted surveyors. So this brings the Barrington patriline closer to Trinity, TB North where a small NL Mc extended kin group (Brazils-Basques) of app. 6-7 resided during the time period 1817-22. I would have Brazil as the older family of NL Mc-Mont residing at Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole. The evidence explains how the Johns and Bernards, as well as perhaps Mitchells, tie into the Piper’s Hole watershed area. Hope this helps.

  30. I don’t known if you have any of this information on the Piccos as connected to John Barrington & Mary Hawco of Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole, PB, as cited from the NL 1921 Census of Swift Current:

    DOD (Date of Death) Sept 16, 1907
    POD (Place of Death) Piper’s Hole
    COD (Cause of Death) consumption
    Surname Picco
    Given Names Ann
    Religious Denomination Roman Catholic
    Age 28 years
    POB (Place of Birth) Pipers Hole
    POI (Place of Internment) Sound Island


    Not at home
    Age Guessed
    Swift Current
    [page 340]

    I don’t know if and/or how these PB Piccos tie into with the FB ones. At face value, the evidence seems to suggest some kind of connection and/or relationship between both family groups. Alphonsus Barrington Jr. of Badger Brook, Exploit’s River, NDB believed that the Piccos and Barringtons were somehow related but he didn’t know how the connection came about (Alphonse Barrington, personal communication, Badger, 2003-4). Hope this helps.

      1. Anytime Dorothy, you are very much welcome, and thank you for posting this information. I thoroughly enjoy reading all of your blog posts and commentaries on NL Mc family history-genealogy, as they are very informative, enlightening and insightful, as well as highly detailed and researched. Your research efforts and hard work are commendable and acknowledged in preserving this information for future generations. Furthermore, I would be more than happy to share any information that I have relating to the reconstructed ethnohistory and ancient human population history of the Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas. Through app. 25 years of fieldwork and research in this area, plus an ancient family connection to this beautiful area of NL, I have amassed a sizable corpus of information in this area of research study-most of which has already been shared in the public domain-but admittedly there are still many gaps, unanswered questions and dangling loose threads in connecting the data-hence the importance of research like Mr. Griffin’s. His research is equally and if not more important in educating the general public on the attested NL Mc connections in the Terrenceville-Long Harbour, Fortune Bay area. In addition to honoring and recognizing direct living descendants from this area with patrilines-matrilines emanating from Conne River (NL Mc Miawpukek, Br Le Cornu “The Horn”) through comparative archival “paper trail” research and “direct-to-consumer” commercial genetic genealogy testing (mtDNA HVR I-II, YDNA STR-SNP, atDNA), his work has implications for meshing together the missing “pieces of the puzzle” in reconstructing the ancient human migration and settlement history extending from Conne River, FB to Piper’s Hole (Fr. Baie L’argent), PB.. His research has implications for historic commemoration programs in the Long Harbour River, FB area, in partnership with Miawpukek, such as commemorative plaques, walking trail and/or lookout point NL Mc community history interpretation signs, a website and, of course, a book. I look fwd to one day seeing more publications by Mr. Griffin, and of course a publication on John family history-a most interesting topic in and of itself. Once again Dorothy thank you very much for posting this blog on FB Mi’kmaq, it is much appreciated and long overdue. Please do keep up the excellent work, it is duly noted and much respected.

        1. Hello there,
          Thanks for the kind words, the importance of keeping this history alive is very important not only for the family but for the communities as a whole. You seem very knowledgeable about the area and the persons who lived there. Would love to hear more from you on the topic of the families and hope to put together the pieces of the puzzle even more so, I’ve been looking for a another researcher of this area for years but have not been able to contact one. I would like more specific information on the families in Piper’s Hole. I would like to email you, perhaps Dorothy can email you my email so we can correspond? Thanks in Advance!

          As for the Picco’s you mentioned; Ann Picco who died in 1907 was originally Annie Barrington. She was the first wife of Ambrose Picco, son of Phillip Picco & Eliza Young. Ambrose was the nephew of the Mary Jane (Picco) Hanrahan who is pictured in this article. I believe I have a photo of Ambrose, but will have to check to see.

          I remember seeing Beatrice Picco before, but I cannot remember her parents names and for some reason I do not have it written down. Will try and find the information if you need it!

          Thanks Again
          Hope to hear from you!

  31. Here is a link for a photograph (Penney 2015: 9) dated 1872 of John Barrington Sr. (1825-1928) (of Black River-Indian Cove, Piper’s Hole River, PB & Conne River, FB) taken at the Heart’s Content Anglo-American electric telegraph station, TB North, standing in background at left behind a NL Mc birchbark canoe (maskwikwitn), along with Big John Stevens (of Halls Bay-Brigus, CBN), standing in foreground at right holding a canoe paddle (l’nui’pi), so as to give readers an idea of what the physical type or physiognomy of the Barrington patriline looked like. Mr. Barrington would have been app. 46-7 years of age at the time of the photograph. The caption of the photograph as excerpted is titled: ““Hearts Content, Newfoundland. 2 Mich mac Indians & Canoe. S.H. Davis March 24th 1872” (Western Union Archives, New York). John Barrington and Big John Stevens”. This is the same photograph published in the book “Connecting the Continents:Heart’s Content and the Atlantic Cable”, Ted Rowe (2009), and as far as the present researcher is aware presents the only known photograph of John Barrington Sr. to currently exist or to have survived at least where he has been positively identified-a most intriguing and beautiful photograph to say the least showing details of NL Mc clothing and material culture for this era. I hope this helps.

    Source: GPALT (Gerald Penney Associates Limited). 2015. James P. Howley, “the birth of Newfoundland archaeology, and the end of history”.

  32. Hello Dorothy : I am admin. of the Facebook Groups “Burgeo’s Past” and “Newfoundland Grand Banks” . We have been collecting information & pictures on the “Saunders”, “Rhymes” & “Picco” in the Group for the last 7 years. Esau Rhymes from Burgeo,NL. who married Ann Saunders , was married at Burgeo,NL. where they lived and raised their family. You can see all the information on the Family in “Burgeo’s Past” at this Link:

    1. Hi John, thanks for letting me know about your Facebook groups. I’m sure other readers will want to check them out too. And, if you didn’t see it, here’s a link to a post about Howard Blackburn, Tommy Welsh and the Lushmans that I wrote. In it, there’s a link to the Dec. 1912 Nf Quarterly “A Tale of the Sea” about Blackburn and Welsh that I transcribed. I had read Earl Pilgrim’s “Drifting into Doom” and was very taken with the story! :)

  33. Very interesting. My maternal grandmother was Susannah Saunders from Harbour Mille in Fortune Bay. She married Jacob Scott from the nearby community of Little Harbour East where they resided and raised a large family.

    1. Hi Marjorie, thanks for adding some names and places to the Saunders story. Any thoughts on Catherine Banfield, asked about by Eva yesterday?

      1. I believe she was from Southern Harbour and was a Mansfield not a Banfield, but I haven’t thoroughly researched the family. There were Mansfields in Southern Harbour and area. His brother married a Dawe I believe from Brigus?

    2. Hi Marjorie,

      Your Susannah (Saunders) Scott was the daughter of James Saunders & Maria Brown, granddaughter of George Saunders and his first wife Ann.

      Do you happen to know anything about your grandfather Jacob Scott’s mother Lavinia (Pardy) Scott. I have a friend looking for information on her. Thanks!!

  34. Jane Saunders (m. Timothy McCarthy), are my great grandparents, my mother who was born on Woods Island in the Bay of Islands these were her father’s (John McCarthy) parents

      1. Missing a generation in between. John McCarthy’s parents were Daniel McCarthy & Elizabeth Jane Thornhill. Daniel’s parents were Jane Saunders & Tim McCarthy.. For a little bit of information on Daniel, he got into an altercation with John Rideout (the first Rideout in Terrenceville) in 1894 after Rideout was taunting Daniel while he was rowing out in his punt for being “dirty skinned”. A derogatory term for being of Native descent. This is according to the arresting officer at the time. It seems John was an often an instigator from the interviews with witnesses which included Daniel’s father Tim McCarthy, John Rideout’s wife Catherine (McCarthy) Rideout, John McCarthy (Mary Hynes, daughter of Elizabeth Saunders’s husband) and others.

        1. Not sure how to post this in the comments but trying to post a picture of Timothy McCarthy, son of Daniel McCarthy & Elizabeth Jane Thornhill.

        2. Hi Devon, email me the pic. I think I can attach it to your comment. If not, I’ll put it in the post. And thanks for the extra info.

  35. Reading with interest! I am the baby in the picture with Anastasia Smith Murphy. John Murphy and Mary Murphy Brown were my Gr.Grandparents. I was brought up by my grandmother . She told us she was “reared up” in a tilt in Pipers Hole….which is in Swift Current area, even though her home was St. Joseph’s P.B. Many of her siblings settled in Parkers Cove after she did including her mother.

    1. Hi Jane, it’s so nice to hear from the baby! Thank you so much for writing, and for telling us more about your grandmother.

  36. My Greatgrandmother was Catherine Mansfield or Banfield from Southen Harbour PB. She married Louis John of Conne River had 4 sons.. Also John Barrington was born in Conne River moved to Swift Current/Piper Hole. Louis died in 1904, n his 80’s. Catherine died in 1942 buried at Conne River. Cannot find any info on her. My other side of the family involves the Joe’s.

    1. Hi Eva, I’ve tried to find out about Catherine Mansfield/Banfield too, and no luck. There’s lots of Banfields in Bay L’Argent and Garnish, according to googling I just did. That seems possible for her, geographically. But I can’t find any connection. Maybe somebody reading this will be able to help us out. Hope so!

    2. I believe she was from Southern Harbour and was a Mansfield not a Banfield, but I haven’t thoroughly researched the family. There were Mansfields in Southern Harbour and area. His brother married a Dawe I believe from Brigus?

      1. I was told by several family sources that Old Johnnie Martin (John Martin Jr.) (b. ca. 1875-1885, either Black River or Piper’s Hole, PB), a telegraph line repairman, of Rantem, TBSouth-Black River-Piper’s Hole, PB, worked on the (telegraph) line from Rantem, TB to Sandy Harbour River, PB, with Neddie (Edward) and Jimmie (James) Mansfield of Southern Harbour, PB. In addition to working with them on the telegraph line, they were also known to trap and hunt together in the Black River-Piper’s Hole watershed areas during the late 1800s to early 1900s. Johnnie Martin also worked with Nathaniel Hollett (of Black River, PB & Rantem, TBSouth) and the G(o)osneys of Black River-Pipers Hole, PB, both of whom served as telegraph line repairmen. Although it cannot be proven at present, I assume that both Edward & James Mansfield are either nephews of great-nephews of the Catherine Mansfield (wife of Lewis John) listed above. Alphonse Barrington Jr. of Badger Brook also believed that Catherine John (wife of Lewis John) was a Mansfied and not a Banfield. I suspect that the apparent mix up or confusion derived from one of two causative factors, namely: 1.) low perceptual salience between m and p among some Mc speakers, where both speech segments are oftentimes confused especially at left-edge prosodic words (cf., Mary (Molly) Barrington, pronounced as Polly Barrington among some Barrington direct descendants and Swift Current community residents & Mc etyma such as [m]tlu’tew ‘smoke’ transcribed as [p]tlutew~[n]tlutew~[k]tlutew, where the m~p~t~k alternation is common throughout the Mc dialect continuum; and 2.) the existence of Banfields in Long Harbour River, FB area with a similar sounding family name, the oral traditions of family origins became conflated. Coincidentally, Duncan Barrington (1905-1972/3), so John Barrington & Mary Hawco (sic. Also), the last member of the Barrington patriline to uphold and defend the traditional Indian way of living or lifestyle, and the last to reside at Indian Cove (Browns Island or Johnnie Martin’s Land) is buried in an unmarked plot at the Southern Harbour, PB.. As an endnote, it is interesting to note the connection between the John and Hollett families of Piper’s Hole, PB and Rantem, TB South; cf. Cath’n [Catherine] John, d. Jan. 17, 1910, POD Glenwood, POB Rantem [TB], POBurial Glenwood, aged 32 (RC) [DOB 1878] ( William P. Duggan, noted NL Mc family historian and genealogist believes that Catherine John [nee Hollett] was the first wife of William (Billy) John (brother of Louis John, s/o Peter John & Ellen Hall/Hann) and daughter of John (Jack) Hollett of Piper’s Hole, PB. (Bill Duggan, personal communication, 2010). If you have not previously corresponded with William P. Duggan, a specialist on John family history and a direct descendant of same said family, I would highly recommend that you contact him as he is a wealth of information on the topic. He informed me that it is his intention to publish a book on the matter in the foreseeable future. Communication with him in the near future might assist you in filling in some of the gaps in reconstructed John family history-genealogy.

    3. While nothing that you say above regarding the birth place of Mr. John Barrington Sr., namely Con [sic.] River, and his self-identification as a NL Mc, are inaccurate, the question of who John Barrington was in terms of ethnic origin, and details of his early life are somewhat more complicated and open to debate and research. As dedicated and interested researchers we must admit the fact that we know very little if nothing of the early life of Mr. Barrington, or the details surrounding the adoption of his family name. While the 1928 NL Civil Registration Vital Statistics Return of Deaths for Upper PB District give Con (sic.) River as Place of Birth, we cannot exclude the possibility that he may have been conceived and or later reared following his birth somewhere in the Piper’s Hole-Black River watershed areas, given his later associations with this area-and eventual permanent residence therein. From his estimated DOB of 1825 to 1866-7 when he first shows up in the official parish registers, namely FB St. Bernard’s RC church records, there is a 41-42 year gap in his early formative life which is unaccounted for. In all probability, Mr. Barrington was one of the Indian guides who participated in the 1863 McKay “Orange Lane” Northern Mail Route Survey from PHR, PB to Exploit’s River, FB, and perhaps the 1864 A. Murray NL Geological Surveys. Furthermore, while a death certificate has survived an official birth certificate or baptismal record has not survived-so the researcher is left in the dark as to any answers about his early life. To date, we just have to admit the fact that we don’t know who his biological parents are (at least on record anyways), although YDNA STR haplotyping among his direct patrilineal descendants may shed some light on his paternal origins, nor do we know what alias or pseudonym he may have went by before he took the patronym Barrintgon, nor if he he a first wife and family before he married Mary Hawco (Also) of CBN. In all probability John Barrington was married perhaps to a NL Mc-Mont woman before his marriage to Mary Hawco in 1866-7. What is known according to Barrington oral family traditions is that John Barrington may have had an older sister and other siblings when he was reportedly found in the woods by an Englishman. To date, as far as I know, the direct descendants of his elder sister and siblings have not been identified through atDNA testing at least. In all probability, Mr. Barrington was indeed quite familiar with the Black Duck Brook-Rattling Brook & Indian Cove (aka Rattling Brook Pond), Brown’s Island areas of Piper’s Hole River having frequented and resided there as a young boy (7-13 years of age) along with other NL Mc-Mont families such as Bernards, Brazils andJohns. It is highly likely that one of the motivating incentives driving Mr. Barrintgon’s emigration from Conne River, FB to Indian Cove, PHR, PB, beyond opportunities for gaining long-term, employment as a successful hunting-fishing guide to advance his professional career, and trapping the PHR-BR watershed areas to support his family, was that he still had kin living there-hence, a reason for his strong affiliation to and attachment with Indian Cove, PHR, PB. Beyond what the emerging ancient atDNA may suggest or imply regarding his true biogeographic ethnic origins, one thing is certain for whatever reasons unbeknownst to the current reader herein, or the exact circumstances surrounding his alleged adoption into the extended kin community of Conne River, FB, is that he self-identified as NL Mc since his early adulthood and he was accordingly accepted by that community as a member from that extended kin group-and as such the descendants of this patriline have been calling themselves NL Mc for almost 200 years)!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *