Molly Ann Gell

Lt. Robert Petley, Fredericton NB from the Oromocto Road, 1837 Library and Archives Canada

In 1807 a Wolastoqiyik girl named Molly Ann Gell entered the Sussex Vale Indian Day School in Sussex Corner, New Brunswick. It was run by The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, an Anglican mission also known as the New England Company. Historian Leslie Upton told Molly Ann Gell’s story in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Here’s part of what he wrote:

Gell (Gill), Molly Ann (Thomas)

Molly Ann Gell was one of the five children of Joseph Gell, whose wife died in the winter of 1807. Aged and infirm, he was unable to provide for his family and turned them over to the company for the clothing allowance and 2s. 6d. a week. Molly was sent to learn domestic service in the household of the Reverend Oliver Arnold, master of the New England Company’s school at Sussex Vale (Sussex Corner) and minister of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Arnold had some half dozen apprentices at a time, for each of whom he received £20 a year.

There were especial hazards for the female apprentices. On 6 Jan. 1809 Molly Ann Gell deposed before the magistrates that, returning from Saint John the previous July, she had met a stranger who “Carried her into the Bushes and Against her Will forced her to Comply with his Wishes.” A son was born to her in February 1809, Joseph Solo Gill, who was taken on as an apprentice at birth by Arnold. Molly Ann Gell’s indentures expired in 1811; years later she confessed that the father of the child was Arnold’s son Joseph, who had seduced her in his father’s house.

This treatment of female apprentices was not uncommon. The illegitimate children were taken on as apprentices and so tended to make the program self-perpetuating. No fewer than 13 persons of the name of Gell, for example, appear on the apprenticeship lists.

William G. R. Hind Harvesting Hay, Sussex NB 1880. Library and Archives Canada

Dr. Upton says that in 1822 Molly Ann married a black man named Peter Thomas. They had five children and lived near Sussex Corner.

Google could not help me find out more about Molly Ann, Peter Thomas or their children. In his 1892 biography of Rev. Arnold, Leonard A. Allison lists seven Arnold children but none named Joseph (pp. 16-17).

School closed after 30 years

Sussex Vale school closed in 1826. Two reports (Bromley 1822 and West 1825) cited operational and efficacy problems. In terms of the school’s operation, there was maltreatment and abuse of students. Molly Ann Gell’s story was not unique. There was also undue enrichment of school management and local white residents, through the “fostering” stipends and free labour. Secondly, the school wasn’t doing its job. Students were not actually receiving any useful education and neither they nor their families were converting from Roman Catholicism to the Anglican faith.
Sussex Vale, New Brunswick. Currier and Ives print ca. 1870

The New England Company didn’t rethink the merits of white, Christian education for First Nations. They just changed how they did it. They moved west from New Brunswick and adopted a fully residential school system.

For more see Judith Fingard, “The New England Company and the New Brunswick Indians: A comment on the colonial perversion of British benevolence, 1786-1826” in Acadiensis (Spring 1972) 1:2:29-42.  Also see Andrea Bear Nicholas, “The Role of Colonial Artists in the Disposition and Displacement of the Maliseet, 1790s-1850s” for more on the artist Robert Petley, in J. of Canadian Studies (Spring 2015) 49:2:25-86.

Fish with Chickpeas

Meia-desfeita de bacalhau com grão is salt cod with chickpeas and hard boiled eggs. It is so good. A friend in Newfoundland made it but I didn’t write down how he did it. Years later in the library, looking through Edite Vieira’s The Taste of Portugal, I found the recipe. And photocopied it.

fish-and-chickpeas-photo-d-stewartMeia-desfeita means “half-undone”. In Lisbon, where the dish originated, people would ask for just half an order in restaurants if they were short of money. It has bulk yet is light (the beauty of chickpeas!). It can be served hot or cold. So it is a perfect winter or summer dish, for lunch or an evening meal. And it’s very pretty.

After making it with salt cod, I wondered what it would taste like with other kinds of fish. I got my chance to experiment with smoked trout fillets that a friend gave us.

With a couple ounces of leftover trout, I cut the recipe quantities to one third. That made enough for a meal for two of us. And oh, it was good! So below is the recipe from The Taste of Portugal with my modifications in italics.

meia-desfeita-ingredients-photo-d-stewartBoiled Cod and Chickpeas (Meia-Desfeita com Grão)

  • 12 oz (350 g) best salted cod, from the middle thick slices
    (1 small fillet smoked trout, flaked)
  • 12 oz (350 g) dried chickpeas (4 oz)
  • 2-3 hard-boiled eggs, sliced (2 – lots of egg is good!)
  • 1 medium onion, finely chopped (1/3)
  • 1 clove garlic, finally chopped (1 small)
  • 3 stalks parsley, chopped (1-2 fresh, 1 tsp dried)
  • 1/4 pint (150 ml) olive oil (50 ml, 1/4 cup)
  • 1 tbsp wine vinegar (1 tsp)
  • salt and pepper

Soak the cod for 24 hours or longer (assuming the slices are thick) in cold water, changing it several times. (I flaked the trout off the skin and heated it in the microwave about 30 seconds after everything else was ready.)

smoked-trout-photo-d-stewartSoak the chickpeas separately, overnight. Start cooking the chickpeas first (as they take 1½-2 hours if not done in the pressure cooking, which could reduce the cooking time to 25-30 minutes) in enough boiling water and salt. (You can use canned chickpeas instead, double the amount of dried. Heat and drain)

Scale and boil the cod in enough water to cover it, until tender (20 minutes). Do not add salt but check at the end whether it needs any, taking into account that you have soaked it long enough.

Prepare the garnish, mixing the onion, garlic and parsley, all very finely chopped.

In a separate bowl, mix the oil and vinegar.

fish-with-chickpeas-photo-d-stewartFor serving, place the cod at the bottom of a deep serving dish and cover it with the cooked and drained chickpeas. (I use a platter.) Pour the oil mixture all over this, sprinkle the onion-garlic-parsley garnish on top and decorate with the sliced boiled eggs.

Serves 4-6 (or 2)meia-desfeita-photo-d-stewartI think other fish and seafood would work well too. Shrimp and scallops perhaps. Something with body and richness. Probably not a delicate fish like fresh cod. You want the fish and chickpea taste and texture in balance. Here’s a slightly different way of making it.

Below is a link to The Taste of Portugal, an excellent cookbook that explains the food and its cultural origins. There’s also Jenn Thornhill-Verma’s 2019 book about  the collapse of Newfoundland’s cod fishery. My Portugal Day talks more about the long connection between Newfoundland and Portugal due to cod fish.